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End Times o End of Days) usualmente si riferisce alle idee escatologiche presenti nelle tre Religioni Abramiche (Giudaismo, Cristianismo, ed Islam). Il Tempo della Fine è spesso (ma non sempre) descritto come un tempo di tribulazione che precede la venuta di una figura messianica.

Nel senso più ampio, un numero di religioni e tradizioni di fede hanno idee escatologiche sulla "Fine dei Giorni".

Religioni abrahamicheModifica

Giudaismo Modifica

Nel giudaismo, il "Tempo della Fine vengono abitualmente chimati la Fine dei Gironi (aharit ha-yamim, אחרית הימים), una frase che appare parecchie volte nella Tanakh. Anche se l'idea delle tribolazioni messianiche has un pensiero prominente nel pensiero giudaico, non è un processo immutabile isolato nella sua essenza, ma viene piuttosto associato ad un immagine di redenzione senza sofferenza. Le due immagini sono a volre viste come la dicotomia di due diversi futuri possibili per Israele.

La "Fine dei Giorni" nella escatologia giudaica comprende una serie di temi interconnessi:

  • Messianismo giudaico
    • Il ritorno degli esiliati dalla diaspora ebraica
    • La ricostruzione del Tempio
  • Il Mondo a Venire (Olam ha-Ba), un termine ambiguo che può riferirsi all'adilà, al regno messianico sul mondo, oppure alla vita dei resuscitati

Eventi tumultuosi rovesceranno il vecchio ordine mondiale, creando un ordine nuovo nel quale Dio viene universalmente riconosciuto come il governante di ogni cosa e di ogni persona. Uno dei saggi del Talmud dice, "Lasciate la fine dei giorni venire, anche se Io non vivrò per vederli", dal momento che il mondo sarà colmo di ogni possibile conflitto e sofferenza.

Nel Talmud, nel trattato di Avodah Zarah, a pagina 9A, si afferma che il mondo come lo conosciamo esisterà soltanto per seimila anni. Il calendario ebraico (luach) funziona completamente sull'assunto che quel tempo cominci con l'atto stesso della creazione di Adamo, l'uomo primigenio. Molte persone (specialmente Giudei conservatori ed i Giudei riformati oltre ad alcuni cristiani) pensano che gli anni della Torah, o Bibbia ebraica, siano soltanto simbolici. Secondo agli antichi insegnamenti giudaici, sostenuti anche dagli odierni ebrei ortodossi, gli anni soni da consideralmente letteralmente e consistentemente nel tempo, di 24 ore al giorno e per una media di 365 g'orni all'anno. Calibrazioni accurate vengono eseguite con gli anni mancanti, per rendere conto della differenza tra il calendario lunare ed il calendario solare, dal momento che il calendario ebraico si basa su entrambi. Dunque l'anno 2007 equivale a 5767 anni ebraici dalla creazione dell'uomo sul calendario ebraico attuale. In base a questo calcolo, la fine dei giorni avverrà durente o poco prima dell'anno 2240 (Anno 6000 del calendario ebraico).


According to Jewish tradition, those living during the end times will see:

  1. Ingathering of the scattered Jewish exiles to geographic Israel,
  2. Defeat of all of Israel's enemies,
  3. Building (or divine placement) of the third Jewish Temple in Jerusalem and the resumption of the sacrificial offerings and Temple service,
  4. Revival of the Dead (techiat hameitim), or the Resurrection,
  5. At some point, the Jewish Messiah will become the anointed King of Israel. He will divide the Jews in Israel into their original tribal portions in the land. During this time, Gog, king of Magog, will attack Israel. Who Gog and the Magog nation are is unknown. Magog will fight a great battle, in which many will die on both sides, but God will intervene and save the Jews. This is the battle referred to as Armageddon. God, having vanquished this final enemy once and for all, will accordingly banish all evil from human existence. After the year 6000 (in the Jewish calendar), the seventh millennium will be an era of holiness, tranquility, spiritual life, and worldwide peace, called the Olam Haba ("Future World"), where all people will know God directly."

"All Israel have a portion in the world to come." (Talmud Sanhedrin 10:1) The Ramban (Nachmanades) interprets the world to come as the ultimate good and purpose of creation. He therefore holds that the world to come actually refers to the resurrection of the dead. An event that will occur after the messianic age has already begun. The Ramban holds that all Israel, even the sinners, have a portion in this epoch of resurrection. (The Tzemach Tzedek, Derech Mitzvosecha, Law of Tzitzis).

ChristianityModifica

Vedi anche l'articolo "eschatology Christian eschatology" sulla Wikipedia in inglese


Some Christians in the 1st century AD believed the end of the world could come during their lifetime since Jesus' had said to his followers, to be alert or ready at all times of your life. When the converts of Paul in Thessalonica were persecuted by the Roman Empire, they believed the end was upon them (see 2 Thessalonians chapter 2). This belief had largely dissipated by the 90s AD when Christians said, "We have heard these things [of the end of the world] even in the days of our fathers, and look, we have grown old and none of them has happened to us".[1]

The Apocalypse of John and Gospel of John are held by most current Christian scholars to have been written at least a decade after the fall of Jerusalem in 95 AD, especially those supportive of Dispensationalism the dominant belief in mainline American evangelicalism. But new voices within Christianity contest this claim (See Preterism) and much debate has ensued following publication of Kenneth Gentry's work Before Jerusalem Fell which argues from archaeology and ancient texts (including the Book of Revelation itself) that the book was written during the reign of Roman emperor Nero in the 60s AD.

Conservatives usually place the writing of the synoptic gospels before the fall of Jerusalem. Liberal Christians place the writing of the three other (synoptic) gospels after the fall of Jerusalem. One prominent Australian theologian from Sydney, Paul Barnett, disputes this and places the writing of John's gospel at an early date.

CatholicismModifica

Catholics refer to the 25th chapter of Matthew's Gospel in which Christ says that "no one knows the hour or the day," except the Father. While some believe the prediction of dates or times is futile, many believe that Jesus foretold of signs which would indicate that the "end of days" was near. Some of these signs include natural disasters, civil problems, and other catastrophes. Of the precise time, however, it will come like a "thief in the night."

According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, the Catholic beliefs about the "end times" are addressed in the Profession of Faith.[2]

ProtestantismModifica

Millennialists concentrate on the issue of whether the true believers will see the tribulation or be removed from it by the Rapture, a question which causes division in evangelical circles. Amillennialists believe the end times encompass the time from Christ's ascension to the Last day, and maintain that the "thousand years" is metaphorical.

End times beliefs in Protestant Christianity vary widely. Christian premillennialists, who believe the End Times are now, usually articulate a fairly specific timetable that climaxes in the end of the world. For some, Israel, the European Union, or the United Nations are seen as key players whose role was foretold in prophecies. Among dispensational premillennialists, there are those that believe that they will be supernaturally summoned to Heaven by God in an event called the Rapture before the tribulations prophesied in the Bible's book of Revelation take place.

'End times' may also refer simply to the passing of a particular age or long period in the relationship between man and God. Adherents to this view sometimes cite St. Paul's second letter to Timothy, and draw analogies to the late 20th/early 21st centuries.

Post-Exilic Hebrew books of prophecy such as the Book of Daniel and Book of Ezekiel are given new interpretations in this Christian tradition, while apocalyptic forecasts appear in the Judeo-Christian Sibylline Oracles and in the whole field of apocalyptic literature, which includes the Book of Revelation ascribed to John, the apocryphal Apocalypse of Peter, and the Second Book Of Esdras.

Some fundamental Christians anticipate that biblical prophecy will be fulfilled literally. They see current world and regional wars, earthquakes, hurricanes and famines as the beginning of the birth pains which Jesus described in Matthew Template:Bibleverse-nb and Mark Template:Bibleverse-nb. Fundamental Christians believe that mankind started in the garden of Eden, and point to Megiddo as the place that the world system will finish.

Contemporary use of the term End Times has evolved from use around a group of literal beliefs in Christian millennialism. These beliefs typically include the ideas that the Biblical apocalypse is imminent and that various signs in current events are omens of a climax to world history known as the battle of Armageddon. These beliefs have been widely held in one form, by the Adventist movement (Millerites), by Jehovah's Witnesses, and in another form by dispensational premillennialists.

Religious movements which expect that the second coming of Christ, will be a cataclysmic event, generally called adventism, have arisen throughout the Christian era; but they became particularly common during and after the Protestant Reformation. Shakers, Emanuel Swedenborg (who considered the second coming to be symbolic, and to have occurred in 1757), and others developed entire religious systems around a central concern for the second coming of Christ, disclosed by new prophecy or special gifts of revelation. The Millerites are diverse religious groups which similarly rely upon a special gift of interpretation for fixing the date of Christ's return.

The chief difference between the nineteenth century Millerite and Adventist movements and contemporary prophecy belief is that William Miller and his followers fixed the time for the Second Coming by calendar calculations based on interpretations of the Biblical apocalypses; they originally set a date for the Second Coming in 1844. These sorts of computations also appear in some contemporary prophecy beliefs, but few contemporary End Times prophets use them to fix a date; their timetables will be triggered by future wars and moral catastrophes, and accordingly believe that God's judgment against the conflict-ridden and corrupt world is close at hand

PreterismModifica

Another view of the 'end times' known as Preterism differentiates between the concept of 'end times' and 'end of time', and promotes a different understanding of these prophecies, in that they took place in the first century, more specifically in year AD 70, when the Jewish Temple was destroyed, and animal sacrifices were stopped. In this view, the 'end times' concept is referring to the end of the covenant between God and Israel, rather than the end of time, or the end of planet Earth. Unlike all the other Christian theological systems, Preterism holds an exclusive and unique view on the nature and timing of the 'End Times', in that Preterists teach the 'end times' to be in the first century AD.

Preterists believe that prophecies such as the Second Coming, the defiling of the Temple, the destruction of Jerusalem, the Antichrist, the Great Tribulation, the advent of The Day of the Lord and the Final Judgment were fulfilled at or about the year AD 70 when the Roman general (and future Emperor) Titus sacked Jerusalem and destroyed the Jewish Temple, putting a permanent stop to the daily animal sacrifices.

Proponents of Full Preterism do not believe in the bodily Resurrection of the dead and place this event as well as the Second Coming in AD 70, whereas proponents of Partial Preterism do believe in a bodily resurrection of the dead at a future Second Coming. Full preterists contend that those who consider themselves to be partial preterists are actually just futurists since they believe the Second Coming, Resurrection, Rapture and Judgment are still in the future.

Many preterists believe the first-century living Christians were literally raptured off the earth to be with Christ. At that time, their bodies were changed to be like Christ's. Preterists also believe the term 'Last Days' or 'End Times' refers not to the last days of planet Earth, or last days of mankind, but to the last days of the Old Covenant, the Mosaic Covenant which God had exclusively with Israel until year AD 70.

According to Preterism, many 'time passages' in the New Testament indicate with apparent certainty that the Second Coming of Christ, and the 'End Times' predicted in the Bible were to take place within the lifetimes of Christ's disciples: Matt. 10:23, Matt. 16:28, Matt. 24:34, Matt. 26:64, Rom. 13:11-12, 1 Cor. 7:29-31, 1 Cor. 10:11, Phil. 4:5, James 5:8-9, 1 Pet. 4:7, 1 Jn. 2:18.

Dispensationalist propheciesModifica

The reestablishment of Israel in 1948 gave a major boost to the dispensationalist belief system; Israel's history of wars with its Arab neighbours did even more for it. After the Six Day War in 1967 and the Yom Kippur War in 1973, it seemed plausible to many Fundamentalist Christians in the 1970s that Middle East turmoil may well be paving the way for the Battle of Armageddon.

Leaders of the movement such as Hal Lindsey claimed furthermore that the European Economic Community founded on the Treaty of Rome was a revived Roman Empire, and would become the kingdom of the coming Antichrist and the Beast. A Roman Empire, of course, also figured in the New Testament writers' vision of the future. The fact that in the early 1970s, there were (erroneously thought to be) seven nations in the European Economic Community was held to be significant; this aligned the Community with a seven headed dragon in Revelation. This specific prophecy has required revision, but the idea of a revived Roman Empire remains. It is thought that it would be formed when the European Union becomes a single nation and emerges as a superpower. The Antichrist will probably either be the President of the European Union or the president of its successor, probably a united Europe.

On 1 June 2000, Israel became an Associate Member of the European Union. This agreement was negotiated in 1995. This associate membership allows Israel to cooperate with Europe in industry, trade, transportation, communication, and energy usage. Israel is now officially linked to the so-called Revived Roman Empire. It is claimed that this associate membership of Israel with Europe establishes the relationship that Israel will have with the Antichrist.

The Antichrist was supposed to be the dictatorial leader of a "one world government." He would promise peace to the world while leading Christians into apostasy, and impose a "one world money system" based on the number 666 in which everyone had to have the Number of the Beast branded on them or injected under the skin as a transponder in order to buy or sell. Like the Roman emperors of old, he would impose horrible martyrdoms on surviving Christians. At some point after his appearance, a large number of Jews would convert to Christianity and preach the gospel after the Christians had been removed by the Rapture.

Believers in the system therefore scanned the headlines wondering if various world leaders might be the Antichrist, and wondering whether Mideast violence might be a sign of Armageddon. They feared such things as Social Security numbers and UPC barcodes, fearing that these tax identification numbers may be precursors to the dangerous Number of the Beast, whose receipt destines one's soul to damnation.

The Antichrist, (it is believed), will take the stage initially as the global peacemaker Daniel mentions in Daniel 9:27. This coming prince will broker a covenant or treaty with Israel for a period of seven years. Perhaps with global disarmament he will promise to ensure peace in the world after a particularly destructive future war. His ally will be the Whore of Babylon who was seen in vision by John in Revelation 17. John saw this mysterious harlot actually riding the beast and exerting some sort of control over him for a period of time. This harlot entity heads up an apostate church or some sort of global system of false religion.

At the midpoint of the final seven years a world ravaged by plague and turmoil turns to the Antichrist to lead it. Their hope is that a world dictator will deliver it from the beastly chaos the harlot rulership unleashed and was unable to control. The Antichrist at that time is possessed by a beast demon from the Abyss and so becomes the Beast. The prophet Daniel, again in Daniel 9:27 states that at this time this "prince" will stop the daily sacrifices, (which had been resumed again on the Temple Mount). He then commits an appalling sacrilege not unlike the outrages of the Greek Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes. Now fully revealed as the Beast, the Antichrist assumes global dictatorial rule and attempts to establish his 666 economic system. His persecutions of Christians and Jews at that time will be unprecedented. This three and a half year period of intense trouble and travail was referred to by Daniel. It was also spoken of by Jesus Christ in the Olivet Discourse. In Revelation 13 the Apostle John sets the limits to this great trial at 42 biblical months or three and a half years. This is referred to by Biblical eschatologists as the "Great Tribulation". And it coincides with the time of "Jacob's trouble" mentioned in Jeremiah and the trampling of Jerusalem referred to by John in Revelation 11.

Eventually, the Antichrist, under the threat of approaching armies from the orient, musters the armies of the west to attack Israel. At the climax of the story, Jesus returns in the Second Coming. He destroys the armies gathering for the campaign against Jerusalem. They are sown into the ground in the Valley of Meggido or Valley of Jezreel in northwest Israel. This is known as the Battle of Armageddon.

The separate destinies of the Church and Israel which is inherent in dispensationalism is a particular worry to Jews and to some evangelical Christians. Evangelicals who reject dispensationalism, such as those who hold to a Post Tribulation Rapture, (or more accurately a Post Tribulation Resurrection-Rapture), see both the Church and Israel entering the crucible of the End Time together. These Traditional Pre-Millennialists, as they are called, reject dispensationalism and its end time eschatology as setting forth a dubious eschatology of an "apartheid of the Elect". They consider the dispensationalist doctrine of a Pre-Tribulation Rapture to be self-serving and highly unlikely to be the true last days policy of the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Traditional Pre-Millennialists see all the covenant people of the God of Israel being refined together in the crucible of the end time. They also see the "royal priesthood and holy nation" referred to by Moses and by the Apostle Peter being unveiled in the Apocalypse as a single remnant Elect drawn out from Israel and from the wider Church in the nations.

Dispensationalism, in contrast to the Millerite Adventist movement, got its start in the 19th century, when John Nelson Darby, founder of the Plymouth Brethren religious denomination, incorporated into his system of Biblical interpretation a system of organizing Biblical time into a number of discrete dispensations, each of which marks a separate covenant with God. Darby's beliefs were widely publicised in Cyrus I. Scofield's Scofield Reference Bible, an annotated Bible that became popular in the United States of America.

Since the majority of the Biblical prophets were writing at a time when [Israel] was mostly Jewish, and the Temple in Jerusalem was still functioning, they wrote as if those institutions would still be in operation during the prophesied events. According to Preterism this was the very fulfillment of the prophecies. However, according to Futurists their destruction in A.D. 70 put the prophetic timetable, if there is one, on hold. Many such believers therefore anticipated the return of Jews to Palestine and the reconstruction of the Temple before the Second Coming could occur. (See Christian Zionism)

Specific prophetic movementsModifica
Latter-day SaintsModifica

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as the Mormons, has taught that we are living in the last days.

Some Latter-day Saints believe that the earth does have a temporal existence of 7000 years, and that the present day is somewhere near the 6000th year. They do not speculate as to the time, day or year of the second coming, but watch for indications that the event is approaching.

Latter-day Saints believe that their church is led by prophets who receive inspiration and direction from God. A number of Mormon leaders have taught that the Earth is allotted seven thousand years of existence, and that the earth is nearing the end of the sixth such millennium. Mormon leader Orson F. Whitney stated that we are now in the "late Saturday night" of earth's existence, and that the seventh thousand years will be marked by Christ's second coming and the millennial kingdom, which will be Earth's sabbath and day of rest. The seven seals and seven trumpets of the Book of Revelation relate to the seven millennia allotted to Earth by Latter-day Saint theology.

Latter-day Saints are frequently counseled to watch for the "signs of the times" but not to fear them. The statement "if ye are prepared ye shall not fear" (from Doctrine and Covenants 38:30) has become somewhat of a mantra among the Latter-day Saints. Wars, pestilence, economic despair, natural disasters and more are all part of what Latter-day Saints see as signs of the times. In particular, a great earthquake is mentioned in all cases.

Other events that Latter-day Saints regard as important, and the dates some of them have purportedly occurred:

  • Priesthood authority, which had been lost in the great apostasy, to be restored (this happened in May of 1829).
  • The pure gospel of Jesus Christ to be restored, and taught in His church (this happened April 6, 1830).
  • Elijah would return and give priesthood keys (this happened on April 3, 1836).
  • The return of the Jews to Jerusalem and Israel, as dedicated by Orson Hyde on October 24, 1841 (first wave of Jewish immigration to Israel, or Aliyah (עלייה) started in 1881).
  • The building of a temple in Israel (has not yet occurred).
  • The building of a temple in Zion, Jackson County, Missouri (has not yet occurred, though the location is marked).
  • Temples will "dot the earth" (136 temples as of December 2006).
  • A meeting of priesthood leaders with angelic beings and Christ in Adam-ondi-Ahman (has not yet occurred).
  • Christ will appear in the Temple in Jackson County, Missouri (has not yet occurred).
  • Wars will be poured out upon all nations.
  • The nations of the earth will be gathered to fight Israel.(happening right now)
  • Wicked will be consumed by fire (some traditions allude to a nuclear holocaust, and some hold that this will be at the coming of Christ.)
  • The restored gospel will be preached in all nations, kindreds, tongues, and peoples (there are 53000 missionaries in 165 countries as of 2005).

Many LDS temples feature a statue of Moroni on the highest spire. Most of these statues face East, the direction from which Christ will come. The Salt Lake City temple has two large doors on the east side of the building, that are not used. Tradition holds that Christ will enter the temple through these doors, when He comes again.

After the coming of Christ to the mount of Olives, and the destruction of the wicked, the righteous will live on the earth in relative peace and prosperity during the millennium, under the leadership of Christ. Other churches still may exist during this time, and not all people living will be Latter-day Saints, but such people will represent the "more righteous" part of the peoples of the earth. Missionary work and temple work for the deceased (see Baptism for the dead) will continue during the millennium and missionary and genealogy work will be a main focus of Church members and other righteous individuals who live during the time leading up to the final judgement.

Joseph Smith produced an inspired rendition of Template:Sourcetext 24, relating to the end times.

Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believe that at the beginning of the Millennial Era, Jesus Christ the Lord will appear in his Second Coming and usher in a thousand year era of peace called the Millennium, when Satan will be bound (Doctrine and Covenants 88:110). The wicked will be removed from the earth and the righteous will be "caught up to meet him," and a resurrection of the righteous who have died will occur--they will also "be caught up to meet him." (Doctrine and Covenants 88:96-97). During the Millennium, every man or woman to ever live on the Earth will be resurrected; those who were righteous will be resurrected at the beginning and be able to visit the earth to restore knowledge about family histories; the wicked will be resurrected at the end of the Millennium (D & C 76:85).

At the time of each person's resurrection, their Last Judgment will occur, during which all beings will be placed into one of three heavenly kingdoms; the Celestial Kingdom, Terrestrial Kingdom, and Telestial Kingdom. In the Doctrine and Covenants, Joseph Smith Jr., who is believed to be the translator of the Book of Mormon and first prophet, leader, and seer of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, puts the kingdoms into levels of glory in symbolic comparison to the sun, the moon, and the stars. The sun being the brightest, is relative to the glory of the celestial kingdom, which is for those who obey the commandments, live righteously, become baptized. The moon, being the second brightest, is relative to the terrestrial kingdom, which is for those who are righteous in a sense, but do not constantly obey the commandments and/or are not baptized. The stars, being the least brightest, are relative to the telestial kingdom, which is for those who are wicked and commit major sins without repenting, including murderers. A very small group of people who reject Jesus Christ after receiving full and indisputable knowledge of his divinity, will go to what is called Outer darkness, which is where Satan will eventually be sent with his hosts of angels.(D & C 76:43-46)

While the exact time of Christ's return is not known, certain signs are accepted as pointing to his return:

  • The mountain of the Lord’s house shall be established in the top of the mountains, Isa. 2: 2-3.
  • The Lord shall lift an ensign and gather Israel, Isa. 5: 26 (2 Ne. 15: 26-30).
  • The sun shall be darkened and the moon shall not cause her light to shine, Isa. 13: 10 (Joel 3: 15; D & C 29: 14).
  • Men shall transgress the law and break the everlasting covenant, Isa. 24: 5.
  • The Nephites (ancient fallen people of the Americas, descended from Joseph of Egypt) shall speak as a voice from the dust, Isa. 29: 4 (2 Ne. 27).
  • Israel shall be gathered with power, Isa. 49: 22-23 (1 Ne. 21: 22-23; 3 Ne. 20-21).
  • God shall set up a kingdom which shall not be destroyed, Dan. 2: 44 (D & C 65: 2).
  • War, dreams, and visions shall precede the Second Coming, Joel 2.
  • All nations will gather against Jerusalem to battle, Zech. 14: 2 (Ezek. 38-39).
  • The day cometh that shall burn as an oven, Mal. 4: 1 (3 Ne. 25: 1; D & C 133: 64; JS-H 1: 37).
  • Great calamities shall precede the Second Coming, Matt. 24 (JS-M 1).
  • Paul described apostasy and perilous times of the last days, 2 Tim. 3-4.
  • Two prophets will be slain and resurrected in Jerusalem, Rev. 11 (D & C 77: 15).
  • The gospel shall be restored in the last days by angelic ministry, Rev. 14: 6-7 (D & C 13; 27; 110: 11-16; 128: 8-24).
  • Babylon will be established and fall, Rev. 17-18.
  • Israel shall be gathered with power, 1 Ne. 21: 13-26 (Isa. 49: 13-26; 3 Ne. 20-21).
  • The Book of Mormon shall come forth by the power of God, Morm. 8.
  • Lamanites (Indigenous peoples of the Americas) to blossom, D & C 49: 24-25.
  • The wicked to slay the wicked, D & C 63: 32-35 (Rev. 9).
  • War will be poured out upon all nations, D & C 87: 2.
  • Signs, upheavals of the elements, and angels prepare the way for the coming of the Lord, D & C 88: 86-94.
  • Darkness to cover the earth, D & C 112: 23-24.
RastafariansModifica

The Rastafari movement believes the end times began with the crowning of Haile Selassie as Emperor of Ethiopia in 1930, and that he will soon reveal himself as God.

They moreover believe that Ethiopian historical events such as the Second Italo-Ethiopian War are prophesied in the Bible. The rastafarians are waiting for Selassie to call the day of judgment, punish the wicked, and take the righteous back to Africa to live in Mount Zion in Africa to live with him forever in perfect peace, love and harmony. The present society in which they find themselves is referred to as Babylon, and will be destroyed on the day of judgment.

Rastafarians have a unique interpretation of the end times, based on the Old Testament and the Book of Revelation. They believe Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie is God incarnate, the King of kings and Lord of lords mentioned in Revelation 5:5. While on the one hand Selassie's crowning was seen as the second coming, and events such as the Second Italo-Ethiopian War were seen as fulfillments of biblical and specifically Revelation prophecy there is also expectation that Selassie will call a day of judgment, when he will bring home the lost children of Israel (the black peoples taken out of Africa during the slave trade) to live with him in peace, love and harmony in the Mount Zion in Africa. Mount Zion is not a place, but the Rastas do believe that they will live there with Selassie in the physical sense of the word; e.g., living in their physical bodies in a physical place. There they will never die.

Jehovah's Witnesses Modifica

Jehovah's Witnesses have developed their own unique eschatology, involving the Second Coming of Jesus Christ and the start of the Last Days. Witnesses believe that the Holy Bible is the word of God and his means of communicating with us. They believe that Bible prophecy has always been precisely fulfilled in the past. Therefore they also believe that future prophecy will also come exactly true. Witnesses believe that the term "last days" refers to the concluding time period leading up a divinely appointed execution that marks the end of a system of things. Scriptures had a minor fulfillment involving the time period before the end of the Jewish system of things in 70 C.E. and are now having a major fulfillment in this time period before God cleanses the earth of Satan's wicked system of things.

Witnesses believe that the last days began in 1914 when Jehovah God installed Jesus as the King of God's Kingdom. His first action is described in where Jesus cleanses heaven and casts Satan to the earth. Conditions on earth would then deteriorate to an all time low, culminating in war, pestilence, and earthquakes. Witnesses believe that history proved this date true with the start of World War I in 1914 and the worst global epidemic to date in the Spanish Influenza in 1918.

In the future, Witnesses believe that God will cleanse the earth of all wickedness and Satan will be bound for 1,000 years. During this time period, people will be resurrected to life on earth and given a chance to learn about God (Jehovah) and live under the invisible rule of Jesus Christ. (They believe Jesus sacrificed his earthly life, thus his "return" would not be of flesh and blood as a human, but instead would be an exercise of power over the earth). They feel biblical prophecy shows there will be no more death or sickness and people will live in peace and harmony, just as God originally purposed for Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.

Jehovah's Witnesses have very specific doctrines on the End Times, explained in detail in the literature of the Watchtower Society. Witnesses teach that the Greek word parousia, often translated as 'coming' really means 'presence', that the presence (invisible coming) of Christ began in the year 1914, and that he now sits at God's right hand, ruling amidst his enemies. (Ps. 110:1,2; Heb.10:12,13) Jehovah's Witnesses calculate the year 1914 from Bible prophecy.

  1. Daniel 4:17 says that the dream that God gave to King Nebuchadnezzar deals with the Kingdom of God and God's promise to give it to " the one whom he wants " or " the lowliest one of mankind." The Bible says that Jesus Christ was indeed "the lowliest one of mankind." (Phil. 2:7, 8; Matt. 11:28-30) He is also the one to whom Jehovah 'wants to' give the kingdom. (Luke 1:31-33; Rev. 11:15) Thus, Jehovah's Witnesses believe this dream was also fulfilled in Jesus Christ.
  2. Rulership over mankind, as represented by the tree and its rootstock, would have "the heart of a beast." (Dan. 4:16) As Jesus showed in his prophecy pointing to the conclusion of the system of things (end of the world), Jerusalem would be "trampled on by the nations, until the appointed times of the nations (gentile times)" were fulfilled. (Matt.24:3; Luke 21:24) According to Jehovah's Witnesses, "Jerusalem" represented the Kingdom of God because its kings were said to sit on "the throne of the kingship of Jehovah." (1 Chron. 28:4, 5; Matt. 5:34-35) The Gentile governments are represented in the book of Daniel by wild beasts (bears, rams, goats, etc). Daniel 2:37 depicts these kingdoms, beginning with Nebuchadnezzar, being given rulership of the world, succeeded by other kingdoms to follow. Then, in Daniel 2:44, God would reassert the authority of his kingdom by 'crushing' these kingdoms. This was a prophetic picture of how the gentile kingdoms would 'trample' on the right of God's Kingdom to direct human affairs and would themselves hold sway under Satan's control, until the 'gentile times' ended (Luke 21:21)[3] . (Dan. 7:2-8, 17, 23; 8:20-22; Rev. 13:1, 2; Luke 4:5, 6)
  3. Revelation 11:2, 3 and 12:6, 14 clearly states that 42 months (3 1/2 years) in that prophecy are counted as 1,260 days. "Seven times" or Seven years would be twice that, or 2,520 days. Bible shows that a day is counted as a year in calculating prophetic time in two of its many prophecies (Ezek. 4:6; Num. 14:34), then prophetic "seven times" means 2,520 years.
  4. According to Jehovah's Witnesses, the counting of the "seven times" begin after Zedekiah, the last king in the typical Kingdom of God, was removed from the throne in Jerusalem by the Babylonians. (Ezek. 21:25-27) Jehovah's witnesses believe that this took place 70 years before 537 B.C., the year in which they believe the Jews returned from captivity; that is, it took place by early October of 607 B.C. (Jer. 29:10; Dan. 9:2) Counting 2,520 years from early October of 607 B.C. brings us to early October of 1914.

The Witnesses believe that this is born out in the events of 1914. Jesus answered the question of "the sign" of his presence by including the phrase "For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom." (Matthew 24:7) The 'Great War' of 1914 was even referred to secularly as World War I - the first war of it's kind in history. They conclude that this is proof that WWI was a significant part of the "the sign" of Christ's presence.

Jehovah's Witnesses generally do not use the expression 'end of the world', with its connotations of the destruction of humanity or the planet, but prefer to use the expression 'conclusion of a system of things', thus maintaining the distinction between the original-language words kosmos (world) and aion (age, or system of things)

Witness eschatology envisages the following series of events at the end of the system of things:

  1. Christ becomes King in Heaven in 1914 and Satan and his angels are hurled down to the earth (Revelation 11:15; 12:7-12). The "last days" of 2 Timothy 3:1 begin.
  2. Fulfillment of prophecies in Matthew 24, Mark 13, Luke 21 about the 'conclusion of the system of things.'
  3. Possibly cry of 'peace and security' (1 Thessalonians 5:3).
  4. Destruction of Babylon the Great (all religions throughout the world who do not practice true Christianity) by the 'wild beast' referred to in Revelation 17 (understood by the Witnesses to be the worldwide political system through the United Nations).
  5. Satan's attack on true Christians. (Ezekiel 38).
  6. Armageddon - God's war against the 'Kings of the Earth' (political rulers); destruction of the wicked.
  7. 1000-year reign of Jesus Christ. Survivors of Armageddon will work to make the earth a paradise, like the original Garden of Eden, and will gradually be restored to perfection. It is thought that the dead will be resurrected at this time and given the chance to learn righteousness (Isaiah 26:9, 10).
  8. Final test; Satan let loose for a short time, after which he will be destroyed along with his followers (Revelation 20:7-10).
  9. Christ hands the Kingdom over to his Father (1 Corinthians 15:28).

Witnesses remain neutral in political affairs and teach that believers on earth will be spectators only in the above-mentioned scenario, not participating in any type of warfare.

IslamModifica

Vedi anche l'articolo "Islamic_eschatology" sulla Wikipedia in inglese


Islam gives very clear guidelines to its followers regarding the end of times. There are various signs (as many as up to 100) given in the Sunnah and Quran for the coming of Judgment Day. These signs can be divided into two parts, minor and major. The major signs include the coming of an Antichrist, Imam Mahdi and then Prophet Jesus (who will combine forces of good against evil), the blowing of Trumpet and the minor signs will precede them. For a list of all signs of coming of Judgment day in Islam, visit [1]

Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgment) and the final judgment of humanity. Eschatology relates to one of the six articles of faith (aqidah) of Islam. Like the other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches the bodily resurrection of the dead, the fulfillment of a divine plan for creation, and the immortality of the human soul; the righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah (Heaven), while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam (Hell). A significant fraction of the Quran deals with these beliefs, with many hadith elaborating on the themes and details. Islamic apocalyptic literature describing the Armageddon is often known as fitna (a test) and malahim (or ghayba in the shi'ite tradition).

Shia IslamModifica

In Shia Islamic thought, there is a worldly reality that is mentioned to occur before the end of human life on earth. The events that occur in the final moments of humanity will mainly revolve around Dajjal and his ability to woo humanity to a new world religion, one that is not divinely issued. The idea of a Mahdi returning to help humanity against the "Great Deception" is also mentioned in Sunni traditions, but is specifically outlined as Muhammad al-Mahdi in Shia sources. There are many sources that have prophecies regarding the last days, with only some that are accepted as repeated in different sources by different people. A majority of Shia scholarsTemplate:Who agree on the following detail of events that will occur in the final days:

  1. The Dajjal will claim to be the savior of humanity and people of all faiths will unite under his religion
  2. Most people around the world will be able to communicate with each other and see each other in the palm of their hands
  3. There will be mass killings of Shias in Iraq (around the Euphrates), and there will be prices put on their hands, even if they are not criminals
  4. In Palestine and Syria (the region may be allied or one), there will be nearly 70,000 Jews of illegitimate birth serving in the army
  5. There will be a revolt by a "Yamani" who will be defeated in his efforts
  6. The Mahdi will reappear and make a speech at the Kaba and will gather an army of 313 generals and thousands of followers to defeat the Dajjal
  7. A person by the name of "Sufyani" (his religion is not mentioned, though he is a descendant of the disintegrated Ummayyad dynasty whose scattered descendants may have been in the Levant and Spain or Morocco over the last 12 centuries) will lead forces from Syria across Iraq to Arabia to defeat the Mahdi's forces along with his Allies
  8. At the battlefront near Mecca, Dajjal's forces will be swallowed by the sand
  9. The Mahdi will re-establish the true Islam and the world will find harmony
  10. There will be 27 years of his reign on earth
  11. The resurrection of men and women will begin as the Day of Judgement will commence

Sunni IslamModifica

Sunni Islam, which is followed by the majority of Muslims, has the prophecies for the judgement day very similar to the Shi'ite Islam. Most of these prophecies are made by the Holy Prophet Muhammad even though some references are also present in the Quran.

  1. Messiah-Dajal(literal fake messiah or imposter) will appear to people, nations will follow him as he will appear to them as Jesus Christ. Only those who are true believers of God will not follow him.
  2. Mahdi, a true Muslim will lead the Islamic armies against the invasion of Dajal.
  3. In the last battle of Dajjal, when the Muslim forces under Mahdi are besieged in a fort in Syria, Jesus, a Prophet of Allah, will descend from the heavens (second coming). True believers will follow him and assist to vanquish the Messiah-Dajal.
  4. A great battle will take place near Jerusalem, where Jesus with his followers — the Muslims under Mahdi, defeat the Messiah-Dajal and his army.
  5. Joj and Majoj tribes will re-emerge bringing destruction and famine but again they will be defeated by true believers.
  6. All nations following Jesus will believe in one God (Allah) and they will become Muslim in faith. There will be prosperity everywhere for many years.
  7. Finally due to a lot of prosperity people will become ignorant of religious practices and the Holy Qur'an will be 'lifted' to heaven and not a single copy will exist on earth.
  8. Sun will rise from the West.
  9. An aural boom will cause every last being to die instantly.
  10. The resurrection of men and women will begin as the Day of Judgement (yum al qiamma) will commence.

Other faith traditionsModifica

Many of the world's religions have a prophetic expectation that equates with the idea of the End Times.[4] This section reviews some of these views.

ZoroastrianismModifica

Vedi anche l'articolo "Zoroastrian_eschatology" sulla Wikipedia in inglese


Zoroastrian eschatology is the oldest eschatology in recorded history.[5][6][7] By 500 BC, Zoroastrians had fully developed a concept of the end of the world through a divine devouring in fire.

According to Zoroastrian philosophy, redacted in the Zand-i Vohuman Yasht, "at the end of thy tenth hundredth winter...the sun is more unseen and more spotted; the year, month, and day are shorter; and the earth is more barren; and the crop will not yield the seed; and men ... become more deceitful and more given to vile practices. They have no gratitude." "Honorable wealth will all proceed to those of perverted faith...and a dark cloud makes the whole sky night..and it will rain more noxious creatures than winter."

At the end of the Battle between the righteous and wicked, a Final Judgment of all souls will commence. Sinners will be punished for 3 days, but are then forgiven. The world will reach perfection as poverty, old age, disease, thirst, hunger, and death are halted. Zoroastrian concepts parallel greatly with those of Jewish, Christian, and Islamic eschatological beliefs largely due to the influence Zoroastrianism exerted on Judaism whilst the Levant was under Achaemenid control and the subsequent emergence of Christianity and Islam from Judaism.

BuddhismModifica

Vedi anche l'articolo "Buddhist_eschatology" sulla Wikipedia in inglese


Buddha predicted that his teachings would disappear after 500 years. According to the Sutta Pitaka, the "ten moral courses of conduct" will disappear and people will follow the ten amoral concepts of theft, violence, murder, lying, evil speaking, adultery, abusive and idle talk, covetousness and ill will, wanton greed, and perverted lust resulting in skyrocketing poverty and the end of the worldly laws of true dharma.

As part of their Buddhist eschatology Buddhist have prophecies of the time before the Buddha named Buddha Maitreya would be characterized by impiety, physical weakness, sexual depravity and general societal disarray.

During the Middle Ages, the span of time was expanded to 5,000 years. Commentators like Buddhaghosa predicted a step-by-step disappearance of the Buddha's teachings. During the first stage, arahats would no longer appear in the world. Later, the content of the Buddha's true teachings would vanish, and only their form would be preserved. Finally, even the form of the Dharma would be forgotten. During the final stage, the memory of the Buddha himself would be forgotten, and the last of his relics would be gathered together in Bodh Gaya and cremated. Some time following this development a new Buddha named Maitreya will arise to renew the teachings of Buddhism and rediscover the path to Nirvana. Maitreya is believed to currently reside in the Tushita heaven, where he is awaiting his final rebirth in the world.

The decline of Buddhism in the world, and its eventual re-establishment by Maitreya, are in keeping with the general shape of Buddhist cosmology. Like Hindus, Buddhists generally believe in a cycle of creation and destruction, of which the current epoch represents only the latest step. The historical Buddha Shakyamuni is only the latest in a series of Buddhas that stretches back into the past.

HinduismModifica

Vedi anche l'articolo "Hindu_eschatology" sulla Wikipedia in inglese


Hindus have a cyclic understanding of external history/internal spirituality. The Cycle or "Kalpa" illustrates the pattern of decline in the state of nature and civilization between periods of timelessness when Brahman (Creator aspect of mind/spirit) regenerates the world of existence/reality. There are four yugs or ages in this process from completely pure to completely impure. The final is Kali Yuga or the Iron Age where civilization becomes spiritually degraded, human lives are shortened by violence and disease and there is a general state of decay in nature. This is the worst period before complete destruction which is then followed by a Golden Age, see [2].

Hindu traditional prophecies, as described in the Puranas and several other texts, say that the world shall fall into chaos and degradation. There will then be a rapid influx of perversity, greed and conflict, and this state has been described as:

"Yada Yada Hi Dharmasya Glanir Bhavati Bharata, Abhyuthanam Adharmasya Tadatmanam Srijami Aham". Bhagavad Gita (Chapter IV-7)

"Whenever there is decay of righteousness O! Bharatha And a rise of unrighteousness then I manifest Myself!"

Thus whenever there is intolerable evil and chaos in the world, there is an appearance of an avatar. In the current yuga, known as the Kali (the most evil) yuga, "The Lord shall manifest Himself as the Kalki Avatar... He will establish righteousness upon the earth and the minds of the people will become as pure as crystal."

In Hinduism, there is no eternal damnation of souls. There is no end times as well. After this evil Kali yuga ends, the next yuga or epoch would be Satya yuga where everyone will be righteous, followed by Dwapara yuga, Treta yuga and then another Kali Yuga. Thus time is cyclical and the epochs keep repeating infinitely. However, the extent of tolerable evil and degradation in each epoch is different and therefore the threshold that is necessary for the manifestation of God's incarnation is different for each yuga. The current yuga is the most evil and so the threshold for the appearance of the avatar is so high that the world needs to degrade to the maximum levels.

The length of Kalpa is said to be different by various groups from 5,000 years according the Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University to 4,320 million years in the terms of orthodox Hindus. The BKWSU is unique amongst Hindu cults in believing in a 5th age called the Confluence Age which correlates to the Christian concept of "End Times", a time of both destruction of the world and revelation of God. According to the BKWSU, humanity entered the End Times in approximately 1936 and the world will end in approximately 2036; although there was a failed prediction of the end of the world in 1976.

Baha'i FaithModifica

The founder of the Baha'i Faith, Baha'u'llah claimed that he was the Return of Christ as well as prophetic expectations of other religions. He also provided proofs of the End Times and His station. The inception of the Baha'i Faith coincides with Millerite prophesy pointing to the year 1844. With respect to particular expectations of the end times, it has been argued that the Battle of Armageddon has already passed[8] and that mass martyrdoms anticipated during the End Times had already passed within the Historical context of the Bahá'í Faith.

Native American Modifica

Several Native American tribes hold similar beliefs concerning the end times.

Hopi Modifica

Among the Native peoples of the Americas, the Hopi also have expectations of a "Day of Purification" followed by a great renewal.

Tribal leaders of the Hopi tribe, such as Dan Evehema, Thomas Banyaca and Martin Gashwaseoma, prophesize that the coming of the white man signals the end times, along with a strange beast "like a buffalo but with great horns that would overrun the land". It is prophesied that during the end times, the earth would be crossed by iron snakes and stone rivers; the land would be criss-crossed by a giant spider's web, and seas will turn black. (A common speculative interpretation is to equal "iron snakes" with trains, "rock rivers" with highways and the giant spiders web with powerlines or even the world wide web.)

It is also prophesied that a "great dwelling place" in the heavens shall fall with a great crash. It will appear as a blue star, and the earth will rock to and fro. White men would then battle people in other lands, with those who possess wisdom of their presence. There would then be smoke in the deserts, and the signs that great destruction is near.

Many would then die, but those who understand the prophecies shall live in the places of the Hopi people and be safe. The Pahana or "True White Brother" would then return to plant the seeds of wisdom in people's hearts, and thus usher in the dawn of the Fifth World.

Lakota Modifica

According to an Oglala Lakota medicine man - "darkness would descend over the tribe...the world would be out of balance. Floods, fires and earthquakes would then ensue." Template:Fact

A "White Buffalo Calf Woman" will then purify the world. She will then bring back harmony and spiritual balance.

White bisons have been born in 1994, in 1995 and in 2006 at a farm in Janesville, Wisconsin. Many tribal leaders thus feel that the prophecy is being fulfilled.Template:Fact

Maya Modifica

Vedi anche l'articolo "2012_and_the_Maya_Calendar" sulla Wikipedia in inglese


The ancient and many modern Maya groups believe that the universe has been renewed four previous times. The first attempt at human life produced animals instead; the second produced a people made of clay who would eventually become certain insects (such as ants and bees); the third attempt produced monkeys; and the fourth attempt produced us: "true humans." Each prior attempt at the human creation was destroyed by a different catastrophe which ended the universe. These stories vary by Maya group: the animals were nearly destroyed by a flood, the people of clay were nearly destroyed by a flood and then a global firestorm, the monkey-people were attacked by their own belongings and their animals.

The astronomically-based Mayan calendar will be completing its first great cycle of approximately 5,200 years on the 21 December, 2012. Although there is no substantial evidence that the ancient Maya considered the date significant, many people have postulated that this is the "end of the Universe" from the Mayan perspective, and others believe that the Mayans meant this to symbolize the "coming of a great change."

Norse mythology Modifica

Vedi anche l'articolo "Ragnarok" sulla Wikipedia in inglese


In Norse mythology a strong winter called the Fimbulwinter will seize the earth and bring disorder and fighting between the people of Midgard just before Ragnarok. Ragnarok ("fate of the gods") is the battle during the end of the world waged between the gods (the Æsir, the Vanir and the Einherjar, led by Odin) and the forces of Chaos (the fire giants, the Jotuns and various monsters, led by Loki). Not only will the gods, giants, and monsters perish in this apocalyptic conflagration, but almost everything in the universe will be torn asunder. Only the gods Váli and Vidar will survive to rule over a new world, with a resurrected Baldr.

Greek mythology Modifica

Ancient Greek mythology claimed that, as Zeus had done to his father Chronus, Zeus would too be overthrown by a son. This can be seen as the equivalent to the end of the world, or the end of an age. Prometheus revealed to him that this son would be born from Zeus and Thetis, if they copulated. In order to prevent this from happening, Zeus married Thetis to Peleus, a weak mortal. This union still produced Achilles, the protagonist of the Illiad and one of the greatest heroes of Greek myth.

Fictional treatments Modifica

Varying beliefs about the end times have been the subject of a number of works of fiction.

Literature Modifica

  • The Left Behind series of novels, comics, and motion pictures, originally by Tim LaHaye and Jerry B. Jenkins, are a fictional telling of these tales from the most popular, Futurist point of view, of an evangelist who wishes to convert people to belief in these prophecies.
  • A rapture of sorts occurs in the novel Job: A Comedy of Justice by Robert A. Heinlein.
  • "The Dead" by Mark E. Rogers depicts a fearful end to Humanity's reign on Earth. A (surprisingly small) number of people are "Raptured" from the face of the Earth - perhaps more controversially than anything else that happens in the book, the Pope is *not* "Raptured" - and the remaining people find themselves coming under increasing attack from reanimated corpses under the control of the Biblical demon, Legion. The corpses are all but unstoppable, being vulnerable only to fire, and continue to attack even when their bodies have suffered traumatic damage. (A bullet to the head will not stop them.) Legion and his host are committed to slaughtering all of Mankind in a series of extremely horrible ways. Technology fails at every level rendering Humanity all but defenceless. This novel could be considered the darkest vision of Mankind's final hours.
  • An end-times novel that depicts a Preterist point of view, entitled The Last Disciple, was written by well-known apologist Hank Hanegraaff (aka "The Bible Answer Man") and Sigmund Brouwer; it was released in Autumn 2004, ironically by the same publisher as the futurist Left Behind series.
  • A contemporary Marian visionary, Michelle Rios Rice, has written a superb account of Marian end-time revelations, "A Time of Fire~A Way of Fire", which argues that we are currently in the end times and that the Battle of Armageddon, which is being fought on many levels, has already begun.
  • The end-times of H.P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu Mythos involves the destruction of all we know. Though multiple versions of how it will come to pass exist, one version he mentions comes in his short story The Call of Cthulhu, in which he states...
    "The time would be easy to know, for then mankind would have become as the Great Old Ones; free and wild and beyond good and evil, with laws and morals thrown aside and all men shouting and killing and revelling in joy. Then the liberated Old Ones would teach them new ways to shout and kill and revel and enjoy themselves, and all the earth would flame with a holocaust of ecstasy and freedom."
    —H. P. Lovecraft, "The Call of Cthulhu"
    Essentially, humanity will have reverted to pure instinct and desires, and Cthulhu will usher in a new age in his own image.
  • Joel C. Rosenberg's bestselling political thrillers The Last Jihad, The Last Days, The Ezekial Option, and The Copper Scroll deal with the War of Gog and Magog and what will happen in the End Times previous to the rapture. His nonfiction book which recounts the reasoning behind his theories and the current perceived signs that the End Times will come in our generation is called Epicenter.

Television Modifica

  • In Buffy The Vampire Slayer and its spinoff Angel, the end of the world is treated less as a religious event and more as a general world-scale cataclysm that will not discriminate between Christians and non-Christians. In these shows, the end of the world is the moment when the Old Ones will return to the world and rule again. In this case, the end of the world is a negative event rather than a positive one.

Motion pictures Modifica

See alsoModifica

ReferencesModifica

  1. Clemens Romanus; Hoole, Charles H. (translator, 1885) (ca. 95). "First Epistle". http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/text/1clement-hoole.html. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  2. An explanation of these beliefs can be found on the Holy See's website
  3. ‘The Rise and Fall of an Immense Image' "Pay Attention to Daniel’s Prophecy! p61-62; p94-97 | publisher=Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania |
  4. http://www.crystalinks.com/eschatology.html
  5. http://www.experiencefestival.com/zoroastrianism
  6. http://www.answers.com/topic/zoroastrian-eschatology
  7. http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/t/thompson-time.html
  8. http://bahai-library.com/bsr/bsr09/9B3_lambden_armageddon.htm

SourcesModifica

  • Boyer, Paul. When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture. ISBN 0-674-95129-8
  • Graham, Billy. Approaching Hoofbeats: The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. ISBN 0-380-69921-4
  • Lindsey, Hal. The Late Great Planet Earth (1970 Bantam edition, seventeenth printing); current ISBN 0-310-27771-X
  • Lindsey, Hal. The 1980s: Countdown to Armageddon (1981), ISBN B00005VA37
  • Oropeza, B. J. 99 Reasons Why Nobody Knows When Christ Will Return, ISBN 0-8308-1636-4
  • Ruthven, Jon. The Prophecy That Is Shaping History: New Research on Ezekiel's Vision of the End. ISBN 1-59160-214-9

BibliographyModifica

Dispensationalist commentaryModifica

GeneralModifica


External links Modifica

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