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Richard Charles Hoagland,[1] (nato il 25 aprile del 1945 a Morristown, New Jersey[2]) è un autore americano, e proponente di diverse teorie della cospirazione riguardanti la NASA, civiltà aliene perdute sulla Luna, su Marte e altri argomenti correlati.

Dichiara che rovine di civiltà avanzate esistono oppure esistevano sulla Luna, Marte e su alcune delle lune di Giove e Saturno, e che la NASA e il Governo degli Stati Uniti hanno creato una cospirazione del silenzio per mettere a tacere tutti questi fatti. Ha proposto queste idee in libri, video, conferenze, interviste,[3][4] and press conferences.[5][6]

I suoi punti di vista non sono mai stati ospitati nella letteratura scientifica (sottoposta a revisione paritaria).[7]

Hoagland è stato descritto da James Oberg (in inglese) del The Space Review (in inglese) e dal Dr. Phil Plait (in inglese) di Badastronomy.com (in inglese) come un teorico della cospirazione e uno pseudoscienziato che si occupa assai maldestramente di scienza di confine.[8][9]

BackgroundModifica

Hoagland's self-reported curriculum vitae[2] includes positions as Curator of Astronomy and Space Science at the Springfield Science Museum (in inglese) , 1964–1967, a direttore assistente al Children's_Museum,_Connecticut Gengras Science Center (in inglese) [note 1] in West Hartford, Connecticut, 1967–1968. He was a Science Advisor to CBS News during the Apollo program, 1968–1971. In July 1968, Hoagland filed a copyright registration for a planetarium presentation and show script called The Grand Tour.[10] In 1969, he was contracted by the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation to write a chapter about the Moon for a press book. The Grumman publication was intended to educate members of the media and government officials concerning the Apollo Lunar Module.

A popular planetarium lecturer at the Springfield Science Museum, Hoagland produced a program called "Mars: Infinity to 1965" to coincide with the Mariners 3 and 4 missions.[11] Charles Renaud produced[12] a radio program for WTIC (AM) in Hartford, Connecticut, The Night of the Encounter, which covered the July 14, 1965 Mariner 4 flyby of the planet Mars.[note 2] Hoagland was interviewed for the program at the Springfield Science Museum by WTIC announcer Dick Bertel.

In 1976, Hoagland, an avid Star Trek fan, initiated a letter-writing campaign that successfully persuaded President Gerald Ford to name the first Space Shuttle the Enterprise, replacing the previously slated name for the prototype vehicle, Constitution.[13][note 3] The Enterprise was rolled out for public display on September 17, 1976, Constitution Day.

Hoagland authored the book The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever, and co-authored the book Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA, which was ranked 21st on November 18, 2007 on The New York Times Best Seller list for paperback nonfiction.[14]

Hoagland runs The Enterprise Mission website,[15] which he describes as "an independent NASA watchdog and research group, the Enterprise Mission, attempting to figure out how much of what NASA has found in the solar system over the past 50 years has actually been silently filed out of sight as classified material, and therefore totally unknown to the American people."[16]

Hoagland appears regularly as the "Science Advisor" for Coast to Coast AM, a late-night radio talk show.[17]

While Hoagland makes frequent reference to his receipt of the "International Angstrom Medal for Excellence in Science" in August 1993, the organization that awarded the medal, The Angstrom Foundation Aktiebolag, founded by Lars-Jonas Ångström, was not authorized by Uppsala University or the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to make use of the academy's Anders Jonas Ångström memorial medal. The academy has long authorized only Uppsala University to use their medal for the Ångström's Prize (Ångströms premium), awarded yearly by Uppsala professors to physics students. Mr. Ångström stated in May 2000 that although his award to Hoagland was a mistake, he acted with good faith and with good intentions.[18][19][20]

Hyperdimensional physicsModifica

Hoagland has proposed a form of physics he calls "hyperdimensional physics"[21][22] which, supported by the work of pseudoscientific overunity claimant Thomas E. Bearden,[23] he claims to represent the full implementation of James Clerk Maxwell's original 20 quaternion equations,[24] instead of the reduced Maxwell's equations as amended by Oliver Heaviside commonly taught today. These ideas are rejected by the mainstream physics community as unfounded.[25]

A tenet of these views holds that vast amounts of energy originating from dimensions we cannot perceive are available at latitudes 19.5° both south and north on the Sun and every planet in the Solar System. Hoagland points to the colossal volcano, Olympus Mons, on Mars, as the supreme example, in addition to Earth's biggest volcano, Mauna Loa on the [[Hawaii (island)|island of HawaiTemplate:Okinai]], and the anticyclonic storm on Jupiter. Olympus Mons is centered at approximately 18.65°N 226.2°E, and the massive shield spans from 13.48°N to 23.68°N and from 220.76°E to 232.2°E.[26] Jupiter's Great Red Spot is centered at 22.0°S.[27] According to Hoagland, an essential prediction of his theory is that a massive planet is yet to be discovered in the Solar System.[28] To date, no research conducted in mainstream astronomy would appear to substantiate these theories. Data analyzed from the WISE all-sky infrared survey, fully released in March 2012, has yet to reveal a Jupiter-size planet within the Oort cloud.[29] The survey would have revealed such an object if it had existed.[30]

Hoagland extended his theory about the importance of 19.5° latitude when the Chinese lander Chang'e 3 landed on the Moon at 44.1143°N, 19.5149°W. In this case he drew attention to the significance of that same number as a longitude[31] instead of a latitude. He said the Chinese wished to send a coded message to an extraterrestrial intelligence by landing at that longitude.

Mars, Face on Mars, and CydoniaModifica

Vedi anche l'articolo "(region of Mars) Cydonia (region of Mars)" sulla Wikipedia in inglese


Hoagland claims the "Face on Mars" is part of a city built on Cydonia Planitia consisting of very large pyramids and mounds arranged in a geometric pattern, with the ratios between measured angles roughly equaling mathematical constants such as pi (π), e, as well as the square root of 2 (√2), the square root of 3 (√3), and the number 3. He states that the ratio between the surface area of a sphere and the surface area of the tetrahedron inscribed within it, ≈2.720699, which is π × (√3)/2, is an approximation of e that he refers to as e'. Since e'/π = (√3)/2 = ≈0.866, he speculates that the primary meaning of the geometry of Cydonia is to emphasize the ratio of the sphere and circumscribed tetrahedron.[32] To Hoagland, this is evidence that an advanced civilization might once have existed on Mars, and that NASA is suppressing the evidence for reasons explained in a 1960 Brookings Institution report entitled "Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs."[33][note 4] In fact, although the report did state that it is a possibility that such information would destabilize society, it did not itself even consider the question of withholding information from the public. The report recommended that the question ought to be studied.[34]

On April 5, 1998, NASA's Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) space probe sent back better images of the Cydonia region that indicated that the "face" was an irregularly shaped mesa.[35] Hoagland contends these images were run through multiple filters that degraded the original image in quality, giving it a catbox appearance which obscures what is really on Mars.[36] On September 21, 2006, several new three-dimensional views were released,[37] derived from the high-resolution stereo camera on the European Space Agency's Mars Express space probe. In response to their publication, he remarked, "Science is not what you see or what you feel, it's what you can measure!"[38][39] His co-author Mike Bara has accused the European Space Agency, which released that photo set, of fraud.[40] The image from the HiRISE camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), released in April 2007, was so detailed that even Hoagland appears to have abandoned his contention that the whole structure is a "face."Template:Citation needed In the epilogue to his book released the following October, he analyzed the details of the "face" within the MRO frame and declares: "Nothing in this image is natural. [...] Natural geology doesn't come with 'parallel walls,' 'multiple, 3-D planes,' 'twisted beams'—or repetitive examples of obvious 'thin girders.'"[41]

In March 2010, Mars Express returned radar and visual data from Mars' larger moon, Phobos, showing the moon in unprecedented detail.[42][43] Hoagland wrote that Phobos was revealed to be artificial, a "manufactured" satellite.[44] He added that ESA itself would announce this finding at the September 2010 meeting of the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) in Rome.[45] The Phobos session at EPSC in fact announced that Phobos is probably formed from re-accretion of orbiting debris.[46]

Hoagland also claims that the true color of Mars is salmon red with patches of greenish plant life and a light blue sky.[47] This runs counter to widely accepted spectrographic observations.[48] He also claims that Mars was once the moon of a larger planet which exploded, leaving Mars isolated,[note 5][49] that the advanced civilization on Mars had prior warning of the cataclysm and so escaped by migrating to planet Earth, eventually adapting to the environment and becoming the present human race,[50] and that the numerous objects surrounding the landing sites of the Mars Exploration Rovers are in fact pieces of Martian machinery.[51]

Life on EuropaModifica

Hoagland claims to have originated the idea, in a 1980 article in Star & Sky magazine, that oceans, and possibly life, may exist beneath the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa.[52] In fact, Ralph Greenberg, Professor of Mathematics at the University of Washington, has pointed out that multiple scientists published similar theories throughout the 1970s. Isaac Asimov, for example, postulated it in his 1979 book Extraterrestrial Civilizations.[53] Hoagland himself references the work of Cassen, Peale, and Reynolds,[54] whose computer modeling demonstrated the possibility that tidal heating could maintain an ocean beneath the icy surface.[55]

The MoonModifica

Hoagland rejects the entire body of knowledge represented by professional selenology and asserts that there are large semitransparent structures constructed of glass on the lunar surface, visible in some Apollo photography when the images are digitally manipulated,[56] and even more so when old photoprints are re-scanned on amateur equipment in non-clean conditions.[57] He goes on to say that NASA is suppressing knowledge of an ancient civilization on the Moon, and that the advanced technology of this civilization is lying around on the Moon's surface.[58][59] He alleged in Dark Mission that the twelve Apollo moonwalkers, who would be well qualified to confirm the existence of lunar artifacts and glass structures, have had their memories selectively edited with hypnosis so that they no longer remember seeing evidence of a lunar civilization.[60] He has stated that a feature in an image of the lunar surface, believed by professional planetary scientists to be a rock, is actually the severed head of a robot,[59] and that "someone with an obvious 'in'" to JPL was the true originator of the Apollo Moon landing hoax conspiracy theory in July 1969.[61]

On October 6, 2009, he opined that the upcoming LCROSS lunar impact was targeted on a manned lunar base, set up by the "secret space program,"[62] and that the impact would reveal some secrets. He also said that the impact would be recorded by ALSEP seismometers — the idea that ALSEP was turned off in September 1977 was "just another NASA lie." Eighteen days after the LCROSS lunar impacts, Hoagland released a digitally manipulated copy of the plume image released by NASA. He wrote that the rectilinear pixellation pattern emphasized by his manipulation of the photograph is in fact a ruined city.[63]

It is Hoagland's opinion that NASA's two Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were sent to map the gravitational field of the Moon to confirm the "presence of actual engines inside the Moon."[64] Based on his examination of earlier NASA lunar seismic data, he said that he found "symmetrical structures under the lunar surface at the depth of the core of the Moon." Moreover, he said that the "Moon is not ours" and that it was "brought here and placed in orbit" around the Earth.

U.S. government conspiracyModifica

Hoagland claims the United States government has covered up the presence of extraterrestrials, that the Space AgencyTemplate:Who murdered the Apollo 1 astronauts,[65] that NASA missions to Mars are a "well documented interest of the Bush family,"[66][67] and that there is a clandestine space program which uses anti-gravity technology reverse-engineered from lunar artifacts and communicated by secret societies.[68]

Hoagland further claims that President John F. Kennedy was assassinated by an agency or agencies opposed to his stated policy of inviting First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev to create a joint U.S.–Soviet manned lunar effort.[68][69] He asserts that federal agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and NASA are linked to Freemasonry.[65][70][71][72]

NASA and the Egyptian godsModifica

Hoagland has written[73] and spoken[74] often about what he sees as NASA's "fanatical, relentless"[75] drive to pay homage to the Egyptian gods Isis, Osiris, and Horus. Citing work by Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock on the symbolism of the Great Pyramid at Giza, he explains that these gods are honored via their proxies, the stars Sirius (Isis), the "belt" stars of Orion (Osiris), and Regulus (Horus). He has theorized that NASA preferentially arranges for key space mission events to occur when any of these five stars are at any of five elevations (−33°, −19.5°, 0, 19.5° and 33°) as seen from a significant place related to that space mission event.

As an example, he cites the fact that, at the exact time of the Lunar Orbit Insertion burn of Apollo 8, on December 24, 1968, the Orion belt star Mintaka was exactly on the horizon of the site in the Sea of Tranquility where the Apollo 11 Lunar Module would land seven months later.[75]

He traces the origin of this obsession on the part of NASA to the geologist Dr. Farouk El-Baz, who is Egyptian by birth. He has written that El-Baz was "the most powerful single individual in the American space program"[76] because of his influence over Apollo landing site selection. Two of the six Apollo landing sites satisfy Hoagland's Egyptian criteria:

  • Mintaka at 19.5° at the moment of landing of Apollo 12, with the landing occurring six minutes earlier than scheduled.
  • Sirius at -33° at the moment of landing of Apollo 16, after a one-month launch delay and a 6-hour landing delay.

Hoagland has published on his web site a "Table of Coincidence"[70] specifying several additional Apollo events that he says satisfy his criteria for "fanatical, relentless" worship. Only one of the 135 Space Shuttle launches and 133 landings is included—the launch of STS-88.[77]

Elenin and 2005 YU55Modifica

During the summer and fall of 2011, Hoagland spoke and wrote comprehensively about comet C/2010 X1, also known as Elenin after its discoverer, amateur Russian astronomer Leonid Elenin, and asteroid 2005 YU55. During the June 24, 2011 teleconference sponsored by Project Camelot,[78] he gave the correct dates for closest approach to Earth for both bodies. He said that 2005 YU55 would come dangerously close to both Earth and Moon while we were all distracted by Elenin.

Speaking at the August 2011 Exopolitics Great Britain expo[79] held in Leeds, West Yorkshire, and again at Project Camelot's September Awake & Aware 2011 conference,[80] held in Irvine, California, he expounded a complex pseudo-statistical theory which he said proved that Elenin was not a comet but some kind of time capsule, sent by a prior Earthly civilization thousands of years ago with a message for contemporary humanity. As he said a few weeks earlier before leaving for Leeds, "...it could have been sent on a trajectory 13,000 years ago, arriving back home in the inner Solar System now, as a flying time capsule through interplanetary space with some kind of vital information for now as we approach the end of the Mayan calendar..."[81][82] His analysis depended upon highly counter-rational calculations such as that the odds of any given comet having any given inclination to the ecliptic are one in 360 divided by the inclination in degrees.[83] When, in late August, professional and amateur cometary astronomers announced that Elenin had begun to break up,[84] Hoagland denied this and showed an August 19, 2011 STEREO-B image[85] which he said proved that the "object/structure" apparently had a "'tetrahedral shield'" protecting "'Elenin the spacecraft'" from a coronal mass ejection.[86]

On October 21, 2011, on Coast to Coast AM, Hoagland said that 2005 YU55 had two "really weird" characteristics.[87] First, he said that the asteroid was almost as spherical as a beach ball. Second, it had a rotation period of 19.5 hours. Both characteristics were later found to be inaccurate when better ephemerides[88] and radar images[89][90][91] became available.[note 6] In a November 4, 2011 interview on the Internet radio program Collision Course, he laid out a lunar impact scenario for 2005 YU55.[92] He said that since both Elenin and 2005 YU55 had nearly coincident perihelions on September 11, 2011,[note 7] a "torsion field effect" at perihelion at a distance of 16 million miles (25.75 million km) from each other would have perturbed the asteroid's trajectory just enough so that it will collide with the Moon on November 9, 2011. This perturbation of the asteroid's orbit was the work of an intelligent force using hyperdimensional physics, according to Hoagland. Additionally, he said that if his scenario is correct, NASA would announce on November 7, 2011, when new radar observations are released, that the asteroid is going to collide with the Moon. Hoagland foretold of a "calm and reassuring" address by President Obama concerning the lunar impact at the 19th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting in Honolulu, Hawaii, on November 9, 2011, even though the meetings in Honolulu had been long-scheduled for November 12–13, 2011, and took place as scheduled.[93][94] He believes that calm reassurances are necessary to prevent people from panicking, possibly with lethal results due to stupidity, when a spectacular, but mostly harmless, meteor shower occurs in the Earth's atmosphere about three days after such a significant lunar impact.

Torsion field sensingModifica

Since 2004, Hoagland has conducted a series of what he calls "experiments" designed to detect and, if possible, to measure the torsion field generated by the interactions of massive spinning objects, including distant planets and stars. He seeks to confirm an idea first proposed by amateur scientist Bruce DePalma[95] according to which rotating masses generate inertial fields that cause an increase of the inertia of any other mass they pass through.[96] More recently he has extended this belief to the proposition that large pyramids amplify this effect in their immediate vicinity. He has not said what units a torsion field would be measured in.

His equipment consists of a Bulova Accutron wristwatch manufactured in 1977 or earlier, placed in a tuning fork sensor enclosure which is electrically connected to a MicroSet precision watch timer manufactured by Mumford Micro Systems of Santa Barbara, California.[97] The MicroSet output data is linked to a laptop computer by USB cabling and the Mumford-supplied software creates a dynamic display with many options for data management. The end result is a trace of the Accutron tuning fork frequency, nominally 360 Hz, recorded over any chosen time period. According to Hoagland's explanation,[96] the inertia of the tuning fork should increase when it is influenced by the torsion field, and thus its frequency should decrease.

He has used this equipment on several occasions:

  • Transit of Venus, June 8, 2004. Site: Coral Castle, Homestead, Florida.[note 8] Result: Some frequency spiking during transit. Pronounced spiking to 364.474 Hz at moment of 3rd contact. Continued spiking, some off-scale, for many minutes after the transit was complete.[96] Hoagland later published a second trace[98] which is incompatible with his first report.
  • Dawn at the Pyramid of the Sun, Teotihuacan, Mexico, April 22, 2009. Result: Published trace did not begin until five minutes after dawn. Spikes to 454.79 Hz (07:19:30) and 465.192 Hz (07:20:10).[99]
  • Annular eclipse of the Sun, May 20, 2012. Site: Terrace of the High Finance Restaurant, Sandia Peak, New Mexico. Result: Several off-scale decreasing spikes prior to the eclipse. Six off-scale increasing spikes during the eclipse.[101]

Altre dichiarazioniModifica

Hoagland has asserted that he, and not Carl Sagan, co-created the Pioneer 10 plaque with Eric Burgess;[66][103][104] that the Saturnian moon Iapetus is an artificial planetoid;[105] that the Galileo orbiter, which burned up in Jupiter's atmosphere, caused a mysterious black spot due to its nuclear power source;[106] that the 9/11 attacks were part of a pseudo-Masonic conspiracy;[107][108] and that the Arecibo message was intentionally altered by its author, Carl Sagan.[109] Hoagland sostiene che tutti i pianeti nel Sistema Solare si stanno progressivamente riscaldando, ed è uno scettico del riscaldamento globale per cause antropiche.[110]

Risposte da parte della scienza ufficialeModifica

Nell'ottobre del 1997, ha Hoagland è stato assegnato l'Ig Noberl Prize per l'astronomia "per avere identificato strutture artificiali sulla Luna e su Marte, includendo un viso umano su Marte ed edifici alti 16000 metri sul lato occulto della Luna." Questo premio è un anti-nobel satirico assegnato per parodiare persone che si sono contraddistinte per aver annunciato scoperte "fuori di senno" o "troppo triviali" pur dichiarando di praticare il metodo scientifico.[111]

PubblicazioniModifica

LibriModifica

Contributi, introduzioni, prefazioniModifica

  • The origin of the solar system in Closeup: new worlds, Chapter by Richard C. Hoagland and Ben Bova, New York: St. Martin's PressMay 1977, ISBN 978-0-312-14490-6
  • The Cydonia Codex: Reflections from Mars, Forewords by Dr. Mark J. Carlotto and Richard C. Hoagland, , 2005. ISBN 978-1-583-94121-8
  • NASA, The Moon in NASA Apollo Spacecraft Lunar Excursion Module News Reference, Chapter by Richard C. Hoagland, Periscope Film LLC, 1972. ISBN 978-1-937-68498-3

GiornaliModifica

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VideoModifica

  • Hoagland, Richard C. (Author (with NASA Lewis Research Center)) (1990). Monuments of Mars: City on the Edge of Forever (VHS tape). Cleveland, OH: NASA Lewis Research Center. OCLC 23350482. 
  • Template:Loop (1991). Hoagland's Mars, Vol. 1, The NASA-Cydonia Briefings (VHS tape). Signal Mountain, TN: Distributed by Curley & Co. OCLC 36143345. 
  • Template:Loop (1992). Hoagland's Mars: Vol. II, The U.N. Briefing, The Terrestrial Connection (VHS tape). New York: BC Video Inc. OCLC 42504936. "Extended version" 
  • Template:Loop (1992). The Monuments of Mars: A Terrestrial Connection (VHS tape). New York: BC Video Inc. OCLC 41520112. 
  • Template:Loop (1996). Hoagland's Mars, Vol. 1, The NASA-Cydonia Briefings (VHS tape). Venice, CA: UFO Central Home Video. OCLC 41559991. "Short version, revised and updated" 
  • Template:Loop (2000). Hoagland's Mars (VHS tape). Venice, CA: Knowledge 2020 Media. OCLC 51884429. 
  • Template:Loop (2005). God, Man and ET: The Question of Other Worlds in Science, Theology, and Mythology (DVD). Venice, CA: Knowledge 2020 Media. OCLC 58528205. 

Note Modifica

  1. "Mars Pathfinder Conspiracy". Coast to Coast AM. June 17, 1997. http://archive.org/details/1997-06-17CoastToCoastAm---MarsPathfinder. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  Art Bell confirms that Hoagland's middle name is Charles.
  2. 2,0 2,1 Template:Facebook
  3. The 'Face' on Mars in Planetary Mysteries: Megaliths, Glaciers, the Face on Mars, and Aboriginal Dreamtime, Berkeley, North Atlantic Books, 1986. ISBN 978-0-938-19090-5
  4. Template:Cite interview
  5. "NASA Cover-Ups Continue". National Press Club. The news conference was sponsored by the Enterprise Mission. October 30, 2007. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071103004632/http://press.org/calendar/calendarday.cfm?whatday=30&&whatyear=2007&&whatmonth=10. Retrieved November 2, 2012.  Two press releases were issued by The Enterprise Mission website announcing the 30 October 2007 National Press Club new conference, dated October 22, 2007 and October 30, 2007. Video excerpt: "Richard C. Hoagland Press Conference - October 30, 2007". YouTube. Uploaded by user aparfrey on February 16, 2009.
  6. Teague, Bill. "Media Coverage of Richard Hoagland's Press Conference of March 21st (-- From Various Sources -- )". V J Enterprises. http://www.v-j-enterprises.com/hoagnews.html. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  Information concerning the National Press Club press conference held in Washington, D.C., March 21, 1996.
  7. Knize, Francis C. P. (May 28, 2004). "OMB Peer Review: Public Comment Concerning NASA" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: The White House. p. 12. http://m.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/assets/omb/inforeg/peer2004/42.pdf. Retrieved November 16, 2012. "Efrain Palermo and Richard Hoagland for their previous research which was submitted as peer reviewed material concerning the feature of water streaks on Mars and the possibility of water actually being able to collect on the surface."  Efrain Palermo scrive nel suo sito personale: "Io non sono uno scienziato o geologo. Sono un astronomo dilettante e un artista."
  8. Oberg, James (January 21, 2008). "The dark side of space disaster theories". The Space Review. http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1043/1. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  9. Plait, Phil (2008). "Richard Hoagland's Nonsense". Bad Astronomy. badastronomy.com. http://www.badastronomy.com/bad/misc/hoagland/index.html. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  10. Library of Congress. Copyright Office, Dramas and Works Prepared for Oral Delivery , Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing OfficeJuly–December 1968, 0 026 718 105 6 URL consultato il November 9, 2012.
  11. Sanderson, Richard (August 10, 2000). "Springfield's Link to the Red Planet". Springfield Journal Vol. 26 No. 3. Archived from the original on October 27, 2002. http://web.archive.org/web/20021027081148/http://www.springfieldjournal.com/archives/8-10-2000/celestialwanderings.html. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  12. "The Night of the Encounter". Goldenage-WTIC.org. http://www.goldenage-wtic.org/encounter.html. Retrieved November 17, 2012.  Page includes a half-hour of excerpts from the 1965 WTIC radio program in the MP3 format.
  13. "NASA-wide Survey and Evaluation of Historic Facilities in the Context of the U.S. Space Shuttle Program: Roll-Up Report" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Prepared by Archaeological Consultants, Inc. for NASA. February 2008, revised July 2008. p. 36. http://www.hq.nasa.gov/oia/nasaonly/itransition/Shuttle_Historic_Facilities_Roll-up_Report.pdf. Retrieved November 17, 2012.  Report cites Tom A. Heppenheimer, Development of the Space Shuttle, 1972–1981, Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002. 100–101 ISBN 978-1-588-34009-2
  14. "November 18, 2007: Paperback Nonfiction". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/18/books/bestseller/1118bestpapernonfiction.html?_r=1&oref=slogin&pagewanted=print. Retrieved November 22, 2012. "Rankings reflect sales, for the week ended Nov. 3..." 
  15. "The Enterprise Mission". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/. Retrieved April 10, 2013. 
  16. Richard C. Hoagland; Bara, Mike, Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA, Port Townsend, Feral House, 2007. ISBN 978-1-932-59526-0; Ibid., 2009, p. 57.
  17. "Richard C. Hoagland - Guests - Coast to Coast AM". Coast to Coast AM. http://www.coasttocoastam.com/guest/hoagland-richard-c/5605. Retrieved April 11, 2013. 
  18. Errore nella funzione Cite: Marcatore <ref> non valido; non è stato indicato alcun testo per il marcatore rich-ang
  19. "Richard C. Hoagland: Biographical Information". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/hoagland.html. Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  20. Plait, Phil (2008). "Richard Hoagland's Credentials". Bad Astronomy. badastronomy.com. http://www.badastronomy.com/bad/misc/hoagland/credentials.html. Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  21. "The Enterprise Mission - Physics Lab". The Enterprise Mission. http://enterprisemission.com/physics.html. Retrieved April 11, 2013.  An online repository of "hyperdimensional physics"-related papers.
  22. Template:Cite interview Transcript courtesy of The Enterprise Mission.
  23. Bearden, T. E. (February 2004). "Precursor Engineering: Directly Altering Physical Reality". Cheniere.org. http://www.cheniere.org/techpapers/Precursor%20Engineering1.htm. Retrieved April 11, 2013. 
  24. Bearden, T. E.. "Maxwell's Quaternion Equations". Rex Research. http://www.rexresearch.com/maxwell.htm. Retrieved April 11, 2013. 
  25. Chu-Carroll, Mark (October 31, 2010). "Free Energy by Switching Cameras (Classic Repost)". Good Math, Bad Math. Scientopia.org. http://scientopia.org/blogs/goodmath/2010/10/31/free-energy-by-switching-cameras-classic-repost/. Retrieved April 2013. 
  26. "Planetary Names: Mons, montes: Olympus Mons on Mars". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology Research Program. http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Feature/4453. Retrieved April 11, 2013. 
  27. Hoagland, Richard C.; Torun, Erol O. (1989). "The 'Message of Cydonia': First Communication from an Extraterrestrial Civilization?". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/message.htm. Retrieved April 11, 2013.  See Table 1.
  28. Richard C. Hoagland; Bara, Mike, Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA, Revised and Expanded Edition, Port Townsend, Feral House, 2009. 115–116 ISBN 978-1-932-59548-2
  29. Calvin, Whitney (February 18, 2011). "Can WISE Find the Hypothetical 'Tyche'?". NASA/JPL. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/WISE/news/wise20110218.html. Retrieved April 11, 2013. 
  30. Errore script
  31. Coast to Coast AM, 14 December 2013
  32. Hoagland & Torun 1989. This number is close to e, the base of natural logarithms (≈2.71828). Hoagland therefore calls it e' and uses it in calculations as though it were actually e.
  33. "The 'Brookings Report'". The Enterprise Mission. c. 1996. http://www.enterprisemission.com/brooking.html. Retrieved April 11, 2013. 
  34. Woodard, Keith (November 30, 1997). "Brookings Report Re-examined". virtuallystrange.net. Archived from the original on October 28, 2002. http://web.archive.org/web/20021028174130/http://www.virtuallystrange.net/ufo/updates/1997/nov/m30-005.shtml. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
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  41. Dark Mission, 2007, p. 526; Ibid., 2009, p. 596
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  45. "CO Meeting Organizer EPSC2010". Copernicus.org. http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EPSC2010/meetingprogramme/SB. Retrieved April 12, 2013. 
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  48. Errore script
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  55. Errore script
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  60. Dark Mission, 2009, pp. 246–248
  61. Dark Mission, 2009, pp. 68–70, 242–243
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  66. 66,0 66,1 "CSICOP Turns its Eye on Hoagland—And Gets it Blackened in The Attempt". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/skeptik.htm. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  67. "Will Mars Odyssey Finally Let The 'Cat Out of The Bag?'". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/ody.htm. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  68. 68,0 68,1 "JFK & Comet Holmes". Coast to Coast AM. November 23, 2007. http://www.coasttocoastam.com/shows/2007/11/23. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  69. "Address at 18th U.N. General Assembly, 20 September 1963". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum: Boston, MA: National Archives and Records Administration. September 20, 1963. JFKPOF-046-041. http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/JFKPOF-046-041.aspx. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  70. 70,0 70,1 "Table of 'Coincidence': A Guide to the Improbable at NASA and in History". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/table_of_coincidence.htm. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  71. "A Hoax is a Hoax, of Course, of Course ... Unless its a Hoax of a Different Color". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/dore.htm. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  72. Hoagland, Richard C. (September 5, 2005). "Captain's Blog: 'Hyperdimensional Katrina': New Evidence". The Enterprise Mission. Archived from the original on September 30, 2005. http://web.archive.org/web/20050930203018/http://www.enterprisemission.com/weblog/2005/09/hyperdimensional-katrina-new-evidence.html. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  73. Dark Mission, 2009, pp. 62–63, 271–289, Figs. 5-10, 5-11, 5-12, 5-13
  74. Hoagland, Richard C. and Mars Mission (1992). Hoagland's Mars: Vol. II, The U.N. Briefing, The Terrestrial Connection (VHS tape). New York: BC Video Inc. OCLC 42504936.  Video concerns Hoagland's briefing to United Nations staff on February 28, 1992.
  75. 75,0 75,1 Dark Mission, 2009, caption to Fig. 5-10
  76. Dark Mission, 2009, p. 286
  77. Hoagland's 'Table of Coincidence' offers two different star elevations coinciding with this event. Comet Enke at -33°, and Mars at -3.33°, both as seen from Phoenix AZ. Neither of these qualifies by Hoagland's own stated rules. Encke and Mars are not among the five stars listed. -3.33° is not among the five elevations listed. The Shuttle was neither launched nor controlled from the city of Phoenix. STS-88 launched more than a day later than planned, due to an unexplained master alarm.
  78. "Elenin: A Project Camelot Roundtable Video Conference." June 24, 2011.
  79. Hoagland, Richard C. (August 6, 2011). "The REAL Story of Elenin ... NASA's Astonishing Visit to Vesta ... and the Secret Space Program". Exopolitics Great Britain. http://www.exopoliticsgb.com/content/richard-hoagland-real-story-elenin. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  80. "Awake & Aware 2011". Project Camelot. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110707195235/http://www.awakeandaware2011.com/. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  Awake & Aware 2011 conference website: Hoagland spoke on September 24, 2011.
  81. "Paranormal Documentaries / Space News". Coast to Coast AM. July 20, 2011. http://www.coasttocoastam.com/show/2011/07/20. Retrieved April 14, 2013. 
  82. "Richard Hoagland on Coast to Coast AM and The REAL Story of Elenin". Exopolitics Great Britain. July 24, 2011. http://www.exopoliticsgb.com/content/richard-hoagland-coast-coast-am-and-real-story-elenin. Retrieved April 14, 2013.  Page includes two excerpts from the July 20, 2011 Coast to Coast AM program in the MP3 format. See "Coast To Coast AM - Jul 20 2011 - Hour 4.mp3," time index 14:18 - 16:34.
  83. Robbins, Stuart (August 30, 2010). "Richard Hoagland’s Selective Numerology of Comet Elenin". Exposing PseudoAstronomy. WordPress.com. http://pseudoastro.wordpress.com/2011/08/30/richard-hoaglands-selective-numerology-of-comet-elenin/. Retrieved April 10, 2012. 
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  85. "Timeline Photos". Facebook. August 29, 2011. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10150780471235089. Retrieved April 14, 2013.  Hoagland's composite image depicting Elenin's "tetrahedral shield."
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  88. Errore script Meeting: "Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2012, Proceedings of the conference held May 16–20, 2012 in Niigata, Japan."
  89. Agle, D.C.; Brown, Dwayne (Last update November 17, 2011). "NASA Captures New Images of Large Asteroid Passing Earth". NASA/JPL. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/asteroids/news/yu55-20111107.html. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  90. "Asteroid 2005 YU55 Approaches Close Earth Flyby". NASA/JPL-Caltech. Last update November 7, 2011. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/asteroids/multimedia/yu55-20111107.html. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  91. Benner, Lance A. M. (Last modified December 20, 2011). "2005 YU55 Goldstone Radar Observations Planning". Asteroid Radar Research. JPL/California Institute of Technology. http://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/2005YU55/2005YU55_planning.html. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  92. 18px Richard Charles Hoagland. YouTube. Interview continues in part 2.
  93. Template:Cite press release
  94. Template:Cite press release
  95. andros (April 15, 2005). "Bruce DePalma - Inertial Field Experiment". OverUnity Forum. Hartmann Multimedia Service. http://www.overunity.com/141/bruce-depalma-inertial-field-experiment/wap/. Retrieved April 10, 2013.  Undated letter by Andrew Mount to Stefan Marinov, et al.
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  97. "MicroSet Precision Timer". http://www.bmumford.com/microset.html. Retrieved April 17, 2013.  Mumford Micro Systems' MicroSet webpage.
  98. "Accutron-Coral-4-Tower-June8.jpg". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/Accutron-Coral-4-Tower-June8.jpg. Retrieved April 17, 2013.  Report by Hoagland.
  99. "Accutron-Teo-Pyramid-Sun-Dawn-4-22-09.jpg". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/Accutron-Teo-Pyramid-Sun-Dawn-4-22-09.jpg. Retrieved April 17, 2013.  Report by Hoagland.
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  101. "RCH_graphic062612a1.jpg". Coast to Coast AM. http://download.coasttocoastam.com/pages/RCH_graphic062612a1.jpg. Retrieved April 17, 2013.  Accutron trace data posted to the Coast to Coast AM website.
  102. 18px Richard Charles Hoagland. YouTube.
  103. Errore script
  104. Posner, Gary P.. "My Response to Bara/Hoagland Rebuttal". Gary P. Posner. http://www.gpposner.com/reply_Hoagland.html. Retrieved April 17, 2013. 
  105. Hoagland, Richard C. (2005). "Moon with a View: Or, What Did Arthur Know ... and When Did He Know it? Part 1". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/moon1.htm. Retrieved April 17, 2013. 
  106. Hoagland, Richard C. (2003). "Did NASA Accidentally 'Nuke' Jupiter?". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/NukingJupiter.html. Retrieved April 17, 2013. 
  107. "Who's The Enemy: -- The 'End of Days' Begun?". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/tower2.htm. Retrieved April 17, 2013. 
  108. "Robert Bauval Adds to The '9-11' Mystery". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/bauval.htm. Retrieved April 17, 2013. 
  109. "The Chilbolton Crop Glyphs: A Message Finally Received -- In Answer to Carl Sagan?". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/glyph2.htm. Retrieved April 17, 2013. 
  110. Hoagland, Richard C.; Wilcock, David (2004). "Interplanetary 'Day After Tomorrow?': Part 1". The Enterprise Mission. http://www.enterprisemission.com/_articles/05-14-2004/Interplanetary_1.htm. Retrieved April 18, 2013. 
  111. Errore nella funzione Cite: Marcatore <ref> non valido; non è stato indicato alcun testo per il marcatore ignobel
  112. 112,0 112,1 Grossinger, Richard (March 11, 2010). "The North Atlantic Books List 2: Categories". North Atlantic Books. http://www.richardgrossinger.com/2010/03/the-north-atlantic-books-list-2-categories/. Retrieved April 18, 2013.  See section 5. New Age, subsection B. The Face on Mars.

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