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Richard Charles Hoagland,[1] (born 25 April 1945 in Morristown, New Jersey[2]) è un autore statunitense, proponente di varie teorie della cospirazioni rispetto a fatti occultati da parte della NASA, riguardanti civiltà aliene perdute sulla Luna su Marte e altri argomenti simili riguardanti altri corpi celesti come le lune di Marte e uno dei satelliti di Saturno, Giapeto.

Dichiara che civiltà con tecnologie estremamente avanzate esistono oppure esistevano sulla Luna, su Marte e in alcune lune di Giove e Saturno, e che la NASA assieme al governo federale degli Stati Uniti, mantengono una cospirazione molto estesa per mantenere il segreto su questi fatti.

Ha pubblicato queste teorie in due libri, ma le propaganda anche in video, conferenze, interviste,[3][4] e conferenze stampa.[5][6] His views have never been published in peer-reviewed journals.[7] Hoagland has been described by James Oberg of The Space Review and Phil Plait of Badastronomy.com as a conspiracy theorist and fringe pseudoscientist.[8][9]

Retroterra culturale Modifica

Il curriculum vitae di Hoagland[2] include incarichi come curatore di musei sulla scienza "Curator of Astronomy and Space Science at the Springfield Science Museum", 1964–1967, and Assistant Director at the Gengras Science Center[note 1] in West Hartford, Connecticut, 1967–1968. He was a Science Advisor to CBS News during the Apollo program, 1968–1971. In July 1968, Hoagland filed a copyright registration for a planetarium presentation and show script called The Grand Tour.[10] In 1969, he was contracted by the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation to write a chapter about the Moon for a press book. The Grumman publication was intended to educate members of the media and government officials concerning the Apollo Lunar Module.

A popular planetarium lecturer at the Springfield Science Museum, Hoagland produced a program called "Mars: Infinity to 1965" to coincide with the Mariners 3 and 4 missions.[11] Charles Renaud produced[12] a radio program for WTIC (AM) in Hartford, Connecticut, The Night of the Encounter, which covered the 14 July 1965 Mariner 4 flyby of the planet Mars.[note 2] Hoagland was interviewed for the program at the Springfield Science Museum by WTIC announcer Dick Bertel.

Hoagland authored the book or paperback nonfiction.Errore nella funzione Cite: </ref> di chiusura mancante per il marcatore <ref> which he describes as "an independent NASA watchdog and research group, Hoagland runs The Enterprise Mission website,[13] which he describes as "an independent NASA watchdog and research group, the Enterprise Mission, attempting to figure out how much of what NASA has found in the solar system over the past 50 years has actually been silently filed out of sight as classified material, and therefore totally unknown to the American people."[14] Hoagland appears regularly as the "Science Advisor" for Coast to Coast AM, a late-night radio talk show.[15]

Hyperdimensional physicsModifica

Hoagland has proposed a form of physics he calls "hyperdimensional physics"[16][17] which, supported by the work of pseudoscientific overunity claimant Thomas E. Bearden,[18] he claims to represent the full implementation of James Clerk Maxwell's original 20 quaternion equations,[19] instead of the reduced Maxwell's equations as amended by Oliver Heaviside commonly taught today. These ideas are rejected by the mainstream physics community as unfounded. A tenet of these views holds that vast amounts of energy originating from dimensions we cannot perceive are available at latitudes 19.5° both south and north on the Sun and every planet in the Solar System. Hoagland points to the colossal volcano, Olympus Mons, on Mars, as the supreme example, in addition to Earth's biggest volcano, Mauna Loa on the [[Hawaii (island)|island of HawaiTemplate:Okinai]], and the anticyclonic storm on Jupiter. Olympus Mons is centered at approximately 18.65°N 226.2°E, and the massive shield spans from 13.48°N to 23.68°N and from 220.76°E to 232.2°E.[20] Jupiter'</nowiki>s Great Red Spot is centered at 22.0°S.[21] According to Hoagland, an essential prediction of his theory is that a massive planet is yet to be discovered in the Solar System.[22] To date, no research conducted in mainstream astronomy would appear to substantiate these theories. Data analyzed from the WISE all-sky infrared survey, fully released in March 2012, has yet to reveal a Jupiter-size planet within the Oort cloud.<ref>Calvin, Whitney, [http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/WISE/news/wise20110218.html "Can WISE Find the Hypothetical 'Tyche'?"] Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. 18 February 2011.</ref> The survey should be able to reveal such an object.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Matese |first1=John J. |last2=Whitmire |first2=Daniel P. |year=2011 |month=February |title=Persistent Evidence of a Jovian Mass Solar Companion in the Oort Cloud |journal=Icarus |volume=211 |issue=2 |pages=926–938 |bibcode=2011Icar..211..926M |doi=10.1016/j.icarus.2010.11.009 |url=http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.4584}}</ref>

Marte, Faccia su Marte, e la regione di CydoniaModifica

Template:See also Hoagland claims the "Face on Mars" is part of a city built on Cydonia Planitia consisting of very large pyramids and mounds arranged in a geometric pattern, with the ratios between measured angles roughly equaling mathematical constants such as pi (π), e, as well as the square root of 2 (√2), the square root of 3 (√3), and the number 3. He states that the ratio between the surface area of a sphere and the surface area of the tetrahedron inscribed within it, ≈2.720699, which is π × (√3)/2, is an approximation of e that he refers to as e'. Since e'/π = (√3)/2 = ≈0.866, he speculates that the primary meaning of the geometry of Cydonia is to emphasize the ratio of the sphere and circumscribed tetrahedron.[23] To Hoagland, this is evidence that an advanced civilization might once have existed on Mars, and that NASA is suppressing the evidence for reasons explained in a 1960 Brookings Institution report entitled "Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs."[24][note 3] In fact, although the report did state that it is a possibility that such information would destabilize society, it did not itself even consider the question of withholding information from the public. The report recommended that the question ought to be studied.<ref>Woodard, Keith, [http://web.archive.org-main.us/web/20070221021755/http://www.virtuallystrange.net/ufo/updates/1997/nov/m30-005.shtml "Brookings Report Re-examined"]{{archive link|date=November 2012}}. virtuallystrange.net. 30 November 1997. [http://web.archive.org/web/20021028174130/http://www.virtuallystrange.net/ufo/updates/1997/nov/m30-005.shtml Archived] from the original on 28 October 2002.</ref> On 5 April 1998, NASA's Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) space probe sent back better images of the Cydonia region that indicated that the "Face" was an irregularly shaped mesa.[25] Hoagland contends these images were run through multiple filters that degraded the original image in quality, giving it a catbox appearance which obscures what is really on Mars.[26] On 21 September 2006, several new 3D views were released,[27] derived from the high-resolution stereo camera on the European Space Agency's Mars Express space probe. In response to their publication, he remarked, "Science is not about what you can see. It's about what you can measure,"<ref>[http://www.coasttocoastam.com/show/2006/09/21 "Mars Face"]. ''Coast to Coast AM''. 21 September 2006.</ref>Template:Verify source and his co-author Mike Bara has accused the European Space Agency, which released that photo set, of fraud.[28] The image from the HiRISE camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), released in April 2007, was so detailed that even Hoagland appears to have abandoned his contention that the whole structure is a face.Template:Citation needed In the epilogue to his book released the following October, he analyzed the details of the "Face" within the MRO frame and declares: "Nothing in this image is natural. [...] Natural geology doesn't come with 'parallel walls,' 'multiple, 3-D planes,' 'twisted beams'—or repetitive examples of obvious 'thin girders.'"<ref>''Dark Mission'', 2007, p. 526; ''Ibid''., 2009, p. 596.</ref> In March 2010, Mars Express returned radar and visual data from Mars' larger moon, Phobos, showing the moon in unprecedented detail.[29][30] Hoagland wrote that Phobos was revealed to be artificial, a "manufactured" satellite.[31] He added that ESA itself would announce this finding at the September 2010 meeting of the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) in Rome.[32] The Phobos session at EPSC in fact announced that Phobos is probably formed from re-accretion of orbiting debris.[33] Hoagland also claims that the true color of Mars is salmon red with patches of greenish plant life and a light blue sky.[34] This runs counter to widely accepted spectrographic observations.[35] He also claims that Mars was once the moon of a larger planet which exploded, leaving Mars isolated,[note 4][36] that the advanced civilization on Mars had prior warning of the cataclysm and so escaped by migrating to planet Earth, eventually adapting to the environment and becoming the present human race,[37] and that the numerous objects surrounding the landing sites of the Mars Exploration Rovers are in fact pieces of Martian machinery.[38]

Life on EuropaModifica

Hoagland claims the theory concerning the presence of oceans, and possibly life, under the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa, originated in his article published in the January 1980 issue of Star & Sky magazine.[39] This claim is disputed by Ralph Greenberg, Professor of Mathematics at the University of Washington, who asserts that such theories were widely known in the 1970s, pointing out that Isaac Asimov, for example, promoted them in his 1979 book Extraterrestrial Civilizations.[40] Hoagland himself references the work of "Cassen, Peale, and Reynolds" in the article.[41] Their computer modeling work looked at the possibility that tidal heating could maintain an ocean beneath the icy surface.[42]

The MoonModifica

Hoagland rejects the entire body of knowledge represented by professional selenology and asserts that there are large semitransparent structures constructed of glass on the lunar surface, visible in some Apollo photography when the images are digitally manipulated.[43] He goes on to say that NASA is suppressing knowledge of an ancient civilization on the Moon, and that the advanced technology of this civilization is lying around on the Moon's surface.[44][45] He alleged in Dark Mission that the twelve Apollo moonwalkers, who would be well qualified to confirm the existence of lunar artifacts and glass structures, have had their memories selectively edited with hypnosis so that they no longer remember seeing evidence of a lunar civilization.[46] He has stated that a feature in an image of the lunar surface, mistakenly believed by professional planetary scientists to be a rock, is actually the severed head of a robot,[45] and that "someone with an obvious 'in'</nowiki>" to JPL was the true originator of the Apollo Moon landing hoax conspiracy theory in July 1969.[47] In September 2009, Hoagland stated that the extremely thin film of water that had been detected on the Moon[48] was obviously leakage from buried cities.[49] On 6 October 2009, he opined that the upcoming LCROSS lunar impact was targeted on a manned lunar base, set up by the "secret space program,"[50] and that the impact would reveal some secrets. He also said that the impact would be recorded by ALSEP seismometers — the idea that ALSEP was turned off in September 1977 was "just another NASA lie." Eighteen days after the LCROSS lunar impacts, Hoagland released a digitally manipulated copy of the plume image released by NASA. He wrote that the rectilinear pixellation pattern emphasized by his manipulation of the photograph is in fact a ruined city.[51] It is Hoagland's opinion that NASA'</nowiki>s two Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were sent to map the gravitational field of the Moon to confirm the "presence of actual engines inside the Moon."[52] Based on his examination of earlier NASA lunar seismic data, he said that he found "symmetrical structures under the lunar surface at the depth of the core of the Moon." Moreover, he said that the "Moon is not ours" and that it was "brought here and placed in orbit" around the Earth.

U.S. government conspiracyModifica

Hoagland claims the United States government has covered up the presence of extraterrestrials, that the Space AgencyTemplate:Who? murdered the Apollo 1 astronauts,[53] that NASA missions to Mars are a "well documented interest of the Bush family,"[54][55] and that there is a clandestine space program which uses anti-gravity technology reverse-engineered from lunar artifacts and communicated by secret societies.[56] Hoagland further claims that President John F. Kennedy was assassinated by an agency or agencies opposed to his stated policy[57] of inviting First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev to create a joint U.S.–Soviet manned lunar effort.[56] He asserts that federal agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and NASA are linked to Freemasonry.[53][58][59][60]

NASA and the Egyptian godsModifica

Hoagland has written[61] and spoken[62] often about what he sees as NASA's "fanatical, relentless"[63] drive to pay homage to the Egyptian gods Isis, Osiris, and Horus. Citing work by Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock on the symbolism of the Great Pyramid at Giza, he explains that these gods are honored via their proxies, the stars Sirius (Isis), the "belt" stars of Orion (Osiris), and Regulus (Horus). He has theorized that NASA preferentially arranges for key space mission events to occur when any of these five stars are at any of five elevations (−33°, −19.5°, 0, 19.5° and 33°) as seen from a significant place related to that space mission event. As an example, he cites the fact that, at the exact time of the Lunar Orbit Insertion burn of Apollo 8, on 24 December 1968, the Orion belt star Mintaka was exactly on the horizon of the site in the Sea of Tranquility where the Apollo 11 Lunar Module would land seven months later.[63] He traces the origin of this obsession on the part of NASA to the geologist Farouk El-Baz, who is Egyptian by birth. He has written that Dr. El-Baz was "the most powerful single individual in the American space program"[64] because of his influence over Apollo landing site selection. One of the six Apollo landing sites satisfies Hoagland'</nowiki>s Egyptian criteria. (Mintaka at 19.5° at the moment of landing of Apollo 12, with the landing occurring six minutes earlier than scheduled.) Hoagland has never said how many of the 135 Space Shuttle launches and 133 landings satisfy his criteria for "fanatical, relentless" worship.

The Norwegian spiralModifica

Vedi anche l'articolo "Norwegian spiral anomaly 2009 Norwegian spiral anomaly" sulla Wikipedia in inglese


Hoagland has commented at length[65][66][67] concerning the so-called Norway spiral, an extraordinary display of light seen over much of northern Norway on 9 December 2009, caused by the partial failure of a Russian SLBM test flight. Hoagland draws special attention to the fact that this event occurred close to President Obama's arrival in Norway to accept the Nobel Peace Prize. On 2 February 2010, on Coast to Coast AM, Hoagland said that the Norwegian spiral was a demonstration of a godlike force by an off-world human power, sending a threatening message to any power on Earth with serious manned spaceflight aspirations beyond low Earth orbit (LEO).[68] He believes that something grabbed the Russian SLBM, possibly a Star Trek-like tractor beam, using "torsion weapons technology," bringing the missile to a halt within seconds after it had been traveling between nine and twelve thousand miles per hour. The missile was then sent sailing leisurely across the Norwegian skies at a speed of between two hundred and three hundred miles per hour. The off-world human power responsible for the missile interference, Hoagland believes, is likely a "'rebellious faction'" among the "'Nazi-derived off-world colonies."'[67] On Coast to Coast AM, Hoagland dropped the names of Joseph P. Farrell and Richard M. Dolan and said that the Nazi off-world colonies were founded by Nazi "geniuses," masterminded by Hans Kammler, that escaped Earth with their "secret space program" before the Earth-based Nazi Germany was defeated in 1945. He said that the space Nazis have become like "freaking gods" after having close to sixty years of undivided access to unconventional, Star Trek-like technology.[68] To Hoagland, this was a sufficient explanation of President Obama's desire to cancel Project Constellation, since Obama had clearly accepted that any attempt to return to the Moon would be thwarted by the superior technology of the Nazis in space.

Elenin and 2005 YU55Modifica

During the summer and fall of 2011, Hoagland spoke and wrote extravagantly about comet C/2010 X1, also known as Elenin after its discoverer, amateur Russian astronomer Leonid Elenin, and asteroid 2005 YU55. During the 24 June 2011 teleconference sponsored by Project Camelot,[69] he gave the correct dates for closest approach to Earth for both bodies. He said that 2005 YU55 would come dangerously close to both Earth and Moon while we were all distracted by Elenin. Speaking at the August 2011 Exopolitics Great Britain expo[70] held in Leeds, West Yorkshire, and again at Project Camelot's September Awake & Aware 2011 conference,[71] held in Irvine, California, he expounded a complex pseudo-statistical theory which he said proved that Elenin was not a comet but some kind of time capsule, sent by a prior Earthly civilization thousands of years ago with a message for contemporary humanity. As he said a few weeks earlier before leaving for Leeds, "...it could have been sent on a trajectory 13,000 years ago, arriving back home in the inner Solar System now, as a flying time capsule through interplanetary space with some kind of vital information for now as we approach the end of the Mayan calendar..."[72][73] His analysis depended upon highly counter-rational calculations such as that the odds of any given comet having any given inclination to the ecliptic are one in 360 divided by the inclination in degrees.<ref>{{cite web |last=Robbins |first=Stuart |title=Richard Hoagland’s Selective Numerology of Comet Elenin |work=Exposing Pseudo-Astronomy |date=30 August 2010 |url=http://pseudoastro.wordpress.com/2011/08/30/richard-hoaglands-selective-numerology-of-comet-elenin/ |format=blog |accessdate=10 April 2012}}</ref> When, in late August, professional and amateur cometary astronomers announced that Elenin had begun to break up,<ref>Atkinson, Nancy, [http://www.universetoday.com/88494/comet-elenin-could-be-disintigrating/ "Comet Elenin Could Be Disintegrating"]. Universe Today, 29 August 2011.</ref> Hoagland denied this and showed a 19 August 2011 STEREO-B image[74] which he said proved that the "object/structure" apparently had a "'tetrahedral shield'" protecting "'Elenin the spacecraft'" from a coronal mass ejection.[75] Elenin wrote about the breakup of the comet that bears his name, published on 3 September 2011.[76] Hoagland told Coast to Coast AM host Rob Simone on 16 October 2011, "Well, Elenin, when he discovered it, back in December, remember, announcing he discovered it when it was at +19.5 magnitude,[77] he also stated that he had calculated it had a 13,000 year orbit. 13,000 years is exactly half the precessional cycle — think Mayan calendar — and it takes us back to the time of Atlantis, the time of the previous high civilization that may have been destroyed on this planet, that left a whole bunch of clues, including Göbekli Tepe, as time capsules to help us avert the next time the cycle is going maybe do something bad to us..."[78] On 21 October 2011, on Coast to Coast AM, Hoagland said that 2005 YU55 had two "really weird" characteristics.[79] First, he said that the asteroid was almost as spherical as a beach ball. Second, it had a rotation period of 19.5 hours. Both characteristics were later found to be inaccurate when better ephemerides[80] and radar images[81][82][83] became available.[note 5] In a 4 November 2011 interview on the Internet radio program Collision Course, he laid out a lunar impact scenario for 2005 YU55.[84] He said that since both Elenin and 2005 YU55 had nearly coincident perihelions on 11 September 2011,[note 6] a "torsion field effect" at perihelion at a distance of 16 million miles (25.75 million km) from each other would have perturbed the asteroid's trajectory just enough so that it will collide with the Moon on 9 November 2011. This perturbation of the asteroid's orbit was the work of an intelligent force using hyperdimensional physics, according to Hoagland. Additionally, he said that if his scenario is correct, NASA would announce on 7 November 2011, when new radar observations are released, that the asteroid is going to collide with the Moon. Hoagland foretold of a "calm and reassuring" address by President Obama concerning the lunar impact at the 19th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting in Honolulu, Hawaii, on 9 November 2011, even though the meetings in Honolulu had been long-scheduled for 12–13 November 2011, and took place as scheduled.[85][86] He believes that calm reassurances are necessary to prevent people from panicking, possibly with lethal results due to stupidity, when a spectacular, but mostly harmless, meteor shower occurs in the Earth's atmosphere about three days after such a significant lunar impact. On 7 November 2011, Hoagland announced that two sources, one in the "political structure" in Washington, D.C., and the other in the "intelligence community" in southern California, had informed him of an unconfirmed rumor that an Atlas-Centaur was being prepared for launch at Vandenberg Air Force Base that very night. According to the rumor, the launch will send either a probe to observe 2005 YU55 or, more interesting to Hoagland, a warhead to deflect the asteroid so that it "does not come within a certain radius of the Earth."[87] Neither of these two celestial bodies diverged from predicted paths. Elenin disintegrated completely into a dust cloud. If there was a message for humanity it was not made public. Wrapping up this event, Hoagland took issue with a Coast to Coast AM caller on 2 April 2012, countering the caller's charge that he was claiming that Elenin was a spaceship. He told the caller, "I said it was a probe...I never said it was a spaceship. I said it could be a time capsule. It could be a probe. It could be a chunk of rock directed on an intelligent course. I never said it was a spaceship."[88][note 7]

Other claimsModifica

Hoagland has asserted that he was the "co-creator" of the Pioneer 10 plaque along with Eric Burgess,[89][90][54] that the Saturnian moon Iapetus is an artificial world,[91] that the Galileo orbiter, which burned up in Jupiter's atmosphere, caused a mysterious black spot due to its nuclear power source,<ref>Hoagland, Richard C., [http://www.enterprisemission.com/NukingJupiter.html "Did NASA Accidentally 'Nuke' Jupiter?"] (2003). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.</ref> that the 9/11 attacks were part of a pseudo-Masonic conspiracy,[92][93] and that the Arecibo message was intentionally altered by author Carl Sagan.[94] On 9 December 2007, Hoagland wrote that the vexatious problems NASA was then having with the Engine Cut-off (ECO) low-fuel sensors in the Space Shuttle main fuel tank were due to what he called the "torsion field," which he claimed would never be resolved by conventional engineering.[95] On 7 February 2008, STS-122 launched successfully. In the postlaunch press conference mission managers reported that the ECO sensors had performed flawlessly. The problem had been traced to an external tank feed-through connector — and corrected using perfectly conventional engineering. The mission ended, as planned, on 20 February — and was called a complete success. He also asserts that the orbital parameters of spin-stabilized satellites are influenced by an anti-gravity field in addition to the energy imparted by their launch rockets, which has been kept secret for fifty years until revealed by himself in August 2008.[96] The February 2009 satellite collision between Iridium 33 and Kosmos 2251 was "...deliberate, it was an act of violence," with the intent to make low Earth orbit "uninhabitable at some point," and to permit the termination of the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle program, and the Hubble Space Telescope, according to Hoagland on 16 March 2009 on Coast to Coast AM.[97][98] The three terminations, he said, would be in line with a policy allowing NASA to devote resources to more inspiring programs. He predicted that NASA would announce before May 2009 that because of the increased risk of debris collisions, "Hubble cannot be rescued." As it happened, the Hubble Servicing Mission 4 was successfully completed by the crew of STS-125, and the space telescope was released by them on 19 May 2009. In addition, he said that NASA was lying about the two space-junk alerts in March 2009. During Coast to Coast AM, on 21 May 2009, Hoagland stated that NASA is destroying evidence of life on Mars through the heating of soil samples to high temperatures by the various rovers and landers, which has killed "Martians."[99] On 10 June 2009, Hoagland said that a secret "interplanetary war" is being waged in Earth orbit between two factions of the "supranational government, the so-called secret government." The data for his theory consists of night-vision goggle observations conducted by Robin Falkov, Ed Grimsley, and others, from the roof of a hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during the 2008 ExtraOrdinary Technology Conference.[100] Hoagland stated on 16 October 2009 that the new Ares I-X rocket, scheduled for rollout on 19 October for launch on 27 October, would never reach the launch pad.[101] In fact, Ares arrived at pad 39B on 20 October 2009.[102] On 2 December 2010, Hoagland said that the Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-133, then on the launch pad, would be the first post-Newtonian mission.[103] He explained that the spacecraft would be powered to orbit by "...energy...coming from space, i.e., free energy, hyperdimensional physics, torsion [field] physics...," although he did not explain what he meant by that and was not pressed by host George Noory. STS-133 was delayed by needed repairs to the external tank, but launched successfully, and conventionally, on 24 February 2011. Hoagland released the recording[104] of a National Press Club news conference held on 30 October 2007[5] in which Hoagland and Ken Johnston, a former NASA employee who worked in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory during the Apollo missions,[105] announced that Johnston was ordered to destroy Apollo lunar images and data 40 years ago. Johnston states that he secretly preserved these Apollo images in a private album of "about 1000 old NASA photos and other memorabilia" from his time at NASA,[106] and some of these images were printed and discussed along with Johnston'</nowiki>s story in Dark Mission.[107] In December 2007, Project Camelot released a three-part interview with Hoagland.[4] In it, he discussed "the secret history of NASA," and elaborated on his various claims about the Moon. He also discussed a variety of additional topics, such as "hyperdimensional physics," ancient monuments, the Vatican, consciousness, and the year 2012. In November 2006, Conscious Media Network interviewed Hoagland.[108] He has made numerous claims about the existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life, supported by digitally reprocessed photographic evidence from planetary exploration and testimonials by former government and military officials. During guest appearances on Coast to Coast AM, Hoagland references longstanding friendships with scientists from NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory who, according to Hoagland, provide him with inside information.Template:Citation needed On 21 August 2008, he said, "We over here at Enterprise, except for a couple of people who have proven extremely reliable, and who we constantly check anyway, with the physics, with hard data, with real science, we do not depend on sources. When I come on and I say a so-and-so source told me, it's because I have additional confirmation from another mechanism, usually the physics, usually figuring it out in terms of the numbers, that backs up what our source or sources have told us."[109] Hoagland is a proponent of the belief that all the planets in the Solar System are warming, and rejects man-made climate change. [110]

Responses by scientistsModifica

Many scientists have responded to Hoagland's claims and assertions. Professional astronomer Phil Plait described Hoagland as a pseudoscientist and his claims as ridiculous.[9] In 2002, Ralph Greenberg, Professor of Mathematics at the University of Washington, wrote a paper asserting that the logic of Hoagland's deductions from the geometry of Cydonia Mensae is flawed[111] and says that he is not a trained scientist in any sense. The claim that the crashing of the Galileo orbiter into Jupiter caused a "mysterious black spot" on the planet has since been disputed by both NASA and Dr. Plait. There is photographic evidence that a similar "black spot" was present in imagery of Jupiter taken in 1998. A second image referenced by Dr. Plait shows a dark ring which looks similar to the spot Hoagland cited.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01496 |title=PIA01496: Jovian Dark Spot |publisher=NASA |accessdate=2006-06-28}}</ref> In 1995, Malin Space Science Systems, NASA prime contractor for planetary imaging, published a paper critiquing claims that the "city" at Cydonia is artificial, the claimed mathematical relationships, and — very specifically — denying any claims about concealing questionable data from the public.[112] In October 1997, Hoagland received the Ig Nobel Prize for Astronomy "for identifying artificial features on the moon and on Mars, including a human face on Mars and ten-mile high buildings on the far side of the moon." The prize is a parody award given for outlandish or "trivial" contributions to science.[113]

PublicationsModifica

BooksModifica

  • Richard C. Hoagland, The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever, Berkeley: North Atlantic Books; 1st Ed1 September 1987, ISBN 978-0-9381-907-83
  • Richard C. Hoagland, The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever, Berkeley: North Atlantic Books; 4th Ed1 October 1996, ISBN 978-1-8833-193-04
  • Richard C. Hoagland, Europa: Waterworld of Jupiter, Berkeley: Frog, Ltd1997; unfinished, not released<ref name="NAB2">Grossinger, Richard, "The North Atlantic Books List 2: Categories". Richardgrossinger.com, 11 March 2010. See section 5. New Age, subsection B. The Face on Mars.</ref>, ISBN 978-1-8833-196-63
  • Richard C. Hoagland, The Heritage of Mars, Berkeley: North Atlantic BooksUnfinished, not released[114],
  • Richard C. Hoagland, The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever, Berkeley: Frog, Ltd.; 5th Ed31 January 2002, ISBN 978-1-5839-405-49
  • Richard C. Hoagland; Bara, Mike, Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA, Port Townsend: Feral House16 October 2007, ISBN 978-1-9325-952-60
  • Richard C. Hoagland; Bara, Mike, Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA, Revised and Expanded Edition, Port Townsend: Feral House1 September 2009, ISBN 978-1-9325-954-82

Contributions, introductions, forewordsModifica

PeriodicalsModifica

  • Hoagland, Richard C., and Enzmann, Robert D. "Torchships Now!" Worlds of If, July/August 1974.
  • Hoagland, Richard C. (as Dick Hoagland), "Forum: Television: Never-Never Land and Clarke's Third Law." Galaxy, September 1974.
  • Hoagland, Richard C., and Enzmann, Robert D. "Torchships Now!" Worlds of If, September/October 1974.
  • Hoagland, Richard C. "Following Yonder Star." Worlds of If, November 1974.
  • Hoagland, Richard C. "Why We WON'T Find Life on Mars." Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact, December 1974.
  • Hoagland, Richard C. "Rendezvous in 1985." Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact, September 1975.
  • Hoagland, Richard C. "Return to Mars: A Mission for the Enterprise." Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact, May 1977.
  • Hoagland, Richard C. "The Europa Enigma." Star & Sky, January 1980.
  • Hoagland, Richard C. "The Blivit in the B-Ring." (Part 1). Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact, December 1982.
  • Hoagland, Richard C. "The Blivit in the B-Ring." (Part 2). Artwork by Thea Kynthia. Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact, January 1983.
  • Hoagland, Richard C. "Space: The El Chichon Incident." Omni, August 1983.
  • Hoagland, Richard C. "The Curious Case of the Humanoid Face ... On Mars." Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact, November 1986.

VideosModifica

  • Hoagland, Richard C. (Author (with NASA Lewis Research Center)) (1990) (VHS video). Monuments of Mars: City on the Edge of Forever (VHS tape). Cleveland, OH: NASA Lewis Research Center. OCLC 23350482. 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. and Mars Mission (1991) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars (VHS tape). Signal Mountain, TN: Hoagland: Curley & Co. OCLC 27800009. 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. (1991) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars, Vol. 1, The NASA-Cydonia Briefings (VHS tape). Signal Mountain, TN: Distributed by Curley & Co. OCLC 36143345. 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. (1991) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars, The NASA-Cydonia Briefings (VHS tape). New York; Los Angeles, CA (distributor): BC Video Inc.; Distributed by Lightworks Audio & Video. OCLC 43750741. 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. and Mars Mission (1991) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars: Vol. II, The U.N. Briefing (VHS tape). New York: BC Video Inc. OCLC 33345406. "Extended version" 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. (Executive Producer, Writer (with Geline, Robert J.)) (1992) (VHS video). The Monuments of Mars: A Terrestrial Connection (VHS tape). New York: BC Video Inc. OCLC 41520112. 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. and Mars Mission (1992) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars (VHS tape). Van Nuys, CA: UFO Central Home Video. OCLC 35314882. "Extended version" 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. (Producer, Writer (with Geline, Robert J.)) (1992) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars: Vol. II, The U.N. Briefing, The Terrestrial Connection (VHS tape). New York: BC Video Inc. OCLC 42504936. "Extended version" 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. and Mars Mission (1994) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars: Vol. III, The Moon/Mars Connection (VHS tape). Shelburne, VT: BC Video Inc. OCLC 36535500. 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. (1996) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars, Vol. 1, The NASA-Cydonia Briefings (VHS tape). Venice, CA: UFO Central Home Video. OCLC 41559991. "Short version, revised and updated" 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. and Mars Mission (2000) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars (VHS tape). Venice, CA: Knowledge 2020 Media. OCLC 51884429. 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. (2000) (VHS video). Hoagland's Mars: Vol. II, The U.N. Briefing, The Terrestrial Connection (VHS tape). Venice, CA: Knowledge 2020 Media. OCLC 47958820. 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. (2005) (DVD video). Hoagland's Mars (DVD). Venice, CA: New Science Ideas. OCLC 70668219. "Special edition" 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. (Disk 1: "The Gods of Cydonia: The Case for Ancient Artificial Structures in the Solar System") (2005) (DVD video). God, Man and ET: The Question of Other Worlds in Science, Theology, and Mythology (DVD). Venice, CA: Knowledge 2020 Media. OCLC 58528205. 
  • Hoagland, Richard C. (Executive Producer) and The Enterprise Mission (2008) (DVD video). The Hyperdimensional Election of Barack Obama-- and 2012 (DVD). Albuquerque, NM: The Enterprise Mission. OCLC 317623763. 

Notes Modifica

  1. The Children's Museum, formerly The Science Center of Connecticut, is home to the Gengras Planetarium.
  2. The WTIC radio program, A Night of Encounter (submission title), was submitted by WTIC President Paul W. Morency as an entry for a Peabody Award, but it did not win. Contrary to what Hoagland states on his biography page, the program was not nominated for the award since there is no intermediate level of competition. All winners are chosen directly from the entire field of accepted entries. The entry form, along with an archival 7" 45 rpm gramophone audio recording of the program, are currently being held at the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library at the University of Georgia Libraries in Athens, Georgia. WTIC announcer Dick Bertel hosted the program and interviewed Hoagland. The program also featured a conversation between Hoagland and astronomer Dr. Robert S. Richardson, associate director of the Griffith Observatory.
  3. The Brookings Institution'</nowiki>s report prepared for the Committee on Long-Range Studies of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, "Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs," published in December 1960, is available from the NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) in the PDF format. WorldCat lists nine editions of the report, published between 1960 and 1965. Page 184 of the report is of particular interest to Hoagland. On that page, the report recommends additional studies regarding the implications of the discovery of intelligent extraterrestrial life.
  4. Adapted with acknowledgment from the late Tom Van Flandern.
  5. Hoagland is not aware of any asteroids, including cinematic asteroids, that are not splinter-shaped. Small spheroidal celestial bodies such as 2005 YU55 strikes him as being "really weird" since they lack sufficient self-gravitation to force them into spheres. Video: "Collision Course -Francis Walsh & Special Guest Richard Hoagland with YU55 News (11-4-2011) Pt.1". Collision Course</nowiki>, an Internet radio show hosted by Revolution Radio. 4 November 2011. YouTube. Uploaded by user DrakenI78 on 5 November 2011. See time index 05:28 - 08:32. In part 2 of the interview, he said that he that he does not think 2005 YU55 is an asteroid. He said, "...the damn thing looks like a ship, it looks technological. It does not look like any asteroid I have ever seen." See time index 0:01:19 - 0:01:43. Further reading: Errore script
  6. Elenin's perihelion was on 10 September 2011 at 17:15:51.8 UT (Julian Date: 2455815.219354417315) at a distance from the Sun of 0.48243 AU, according to JPL's Small-Body Database Browser. 2005 YU55's perihelion was on 9 September 2011 at 19:31:44.5 UT (Julian Date: 2455814.313707203) at a distance from the Sun of 0.652495 AU, according to JPL's HORIZONS ephemerides generator for asteroid 308635.
  7. In a 11 November 2011 bulletin posted on his Facebook site, Hoagland described 2005 YU55 as a spaceship: "Here (below) is an Enterprise Mission processed frame from this JPL radar animation. It presents a striking view of YU55, revealing that the 'asteroid' appears MUCH more like 'a badly-eroded ancient spaceship' -- an ancient derelict -- which, indeed, has startling and amazing 'structures'</nowiki> visible across its remarkably symmetrical surface ...."

References Modifica

  1. "Mars Pathfinder Conspiracy". Coast to Coast AM. 17 June 1997. Art Bell confirms that Hoagland's middle name is Charles.
  2. 2,0 2,1 Richard Hoagland's personal Facebook page.
  3. Grossinger, Richard. "The 'Face' on Mars." An interview with Richard C. Hoagland in Planetary Mysteries: Megaliths, Glaciers, the Face on Mars, and Aboriginal Dreamtime. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1986. ISBN: 978-0-9381-909-05.
  4. 4,0 4,1 "Dark Mission: Richard Hoagland". Project Camelot interviews Hoagland, December 2007.
  5. 5,0 5,1 "NASA Cover-Ups Continue". The National Press Club. The news conference event was sponsored by the Enterprise Mission. 30 October 2007. Archived from the original on 3 November 2007. http://press.org/calendar/calendarday.cfm?whatday=30&&whatyear=2007&&whatmonth=10. Retrieved 2 November 2012.  Two press releases were issued by The Enterprise Mission website announcing the 30 October 2007 National Press Club new conference, dated 22 October 2007 and 30 October 2007. Video excerpt: "Richard C. Hoagland Press Conference - October 30, 2007". YouTube. Uploaded by user aparfrey on 16 February 2009.
  6. "Media Coverage of Richard Hoagland's Press Conference of March 21st ". V J Enterprises. Information concerning the National Press Club press conference held in Washington, D.C., 21 March 1996.
  7. Knize, Francis C. P., "OMB Peer Review: Public Comment Concerning NASA". The White House. 28 May 2004. Page 12. Document cites "Efrain Palermo and Richard Hoagland for their previous research which was submitted as peer reviewed material concerning the feature of water streaks on Mars and the possibility of water actually being able to collect on the surface." Efrain Palermo writes: "I am not a scientist or a geologist. I am a layman astronomer and an artist."
  8. Oberg, James, "The dark side of space disaster theories". The Space Review. 21 January 2008.
  9. 9,0 9,1 Plait, Phil, "Richard Hoagland's Nonsense" (2008). Badastronomy.com.
  10. Library of Congress. Copyright Office, Dramas and Works Prepared for Oral Delivery , Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing OfficeJuly–December 1968, 0 026 718 105 6 URL consultato il 9 November 2012.
  11. Sanderson, Richard, "Springfield's Link to the Red Planet". Springfield Journal, Vol. 26 No. 3, Aug. 10, 2000. Archived from the original on 27 October 2002.
  12. "The Night of the Encounter", Goldenage-WTIC.org. Page includes a half-hour of excerpts from the 1965 WTIC radio program in the MP3 format.
  13. Official website: [http://www.enterprisemission.com/ ''The Enterprise Mission''].</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-15">[[#cite_ref-15|↑]] <span class="reference-text">Hoagland, Richard C., and Bara, Michael. ''Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA''. Port Townsend: Feral House, 2007, p. I.; ''Ibid''., 2009, p. 57.
  14. ''Coast to Coast AM''. Guests page for Richard C. Hoagland.
  15. "Physics Lab". ''The Enterprise Mission's'' online repository of "hyperdimensional physics"-related papers.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-18">[[#cite_ref-18|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://www.enterprisemission.com/_articles/05-22-2004_Bell_Interviews_123/Bell-InterviewPartOne.htm Transcript of Richard Hoagland and David Wilcock interview on ''Coast to Coast AM'' (15 May 2004)]. From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website. Retrieved 6 December 2007.
  16. Bearden, T. E., "Precursor Engineering: Directly Altering Physical Reality" (2004).
  17. Bearden, T. E., "Maxwell's Quaternion Equations". Rex Research.
  18. Blue, Jennifer, "Olympus Mons". ''Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature''. USGS Astrogeology Research Program.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-22">[[#cite_ref-22|↑]] <span class="reference-text">Hoagland, Richard C., and Torun, Erol O., [http://www.enterprisemission.com/message.htm "The <nowiki>'Message of Cydonia': First Communication from an Extraterrestrial Civilization?"] (1989). See Table 1. From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-23">[[#cite_ref-23|↑]] <span class="reference-text">Hoagland, Richard C., and Bara, Michael. ''Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA, Revised and Expanded Edition''. Port Townsend: Feral House, 2009, pp. 115–116.
  19. Hoagland, Richard C., and Torun, Erol O., [http://www.enterprisemission.com/message.htm "The 'Message of Cydonia': First Communication from an Extraterrestrial Civilization?"] (1989). This number is close to {{math|''e''}}, the base of natural logarithms (≈2.71828). Hoagland therefore calls it {{math|''e''}}<strong>'</strong> and uses it in calculations as though it were actually {{math|''e''}}.
  20. [http://www.enterprisemission.com/brooking.html "The 'Brookings Report'"]. (c. 1996). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website. </span> </li> <li id="cite_note-27">[[#cite_ref-27|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://www.msss.com/mars_images/moc/4_6_98_face_release/index.html "Mars Orbiter Camera Views the 'Face on Mars'"]. Malin Space Science Systems.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-28">[[#cite_ref-28|↑]] <span class="reference-text">Hoagland, Richard C., [http://www.enterprisemission.com/shrunk.html "Honey, I Shrunk the Face"] (1998). From <nowiki>''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  21. "Cydonia - The face on Mars". European Space Agency: Mars Express. 21 September 2006.
  22. Bara, Mike, "Face it; it’s a Face – (The Sequel)". From Michael Bara's defunct darkmission.net website. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011.
  23. "Phobos flyby images". European Space Agency: Mars Express. 15 March 2010.
  24. "Mars Express heading for closest flyby of Phobos". European Space Agency: Mars Express. 1 March 2010.
  25. Hoagland, Richard C., "For the World is Hollow ... and I Have Touched the Sky!" (2010). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  26. European Planetary Science Congress 2010.
  27. Atkinson, Nancy, "New Theory Says Phobos Formed From Re-Accretion of Impact Debris". Universe Today, 20 September 2010.
  28. Hoagland, Richard C., "Revealing the True Colors of NASA …" (2002). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-37">[[#cite_ref-37|↑]] <span class="reference-text">{{cite journal |last1=Erard |first1=Stéphane |last2=Calvin |first2=Wendy |year=1997 |month=December |title=New Composite Spectra of Mars, 0.4–5.7 μm |journal=Icarus |volume=130 |issue=2 |pages=449–460 |bibcode=1997Icar..130..449E |doi=10.1006/icar.1997.5830 |url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103597958309}}</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-39">[[#cite_ref-39|↑]] <span class="reference-text">Hoagland, Richard C., and Bara, Michael, [http://www.enterprisemission.com/files/TIDES.pdf "A New Model of Mars as a Former Captured Satellite: Bi-Modal Distribution of Key Features Due to Ancient Tidal Stress?"] (2001). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  29. "The Importance of Mars". ''Coast to Coast AM''. 26 December 2003.
  30. "Machinery Found at Spirit Landing Site" (2004). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  31. Hoagland, Richard C., "The Europa Enigma". ''Star & Sky''. January 1980. Reproduced at ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  32. Greenberg, Ralph, "An Ocean on Europa?" Revised 3 February 2002.
  33. Hoagland, Richard C., "The Europa Enigma", page 28. Reproduced article page in which Hoagland references Cassen, Peale, and Reynolds. From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  34. Errore script
  35. Apollo 12 70mm Hasselblad frame # AS12-46-6807. From Michael Bara's defunct darkmission.net website. [http://web.archive.org/web/20110723080634/http://www.darkmission.net/what_if.htm Archived] from the original on 23 July 2011.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-47">[[#cite_ref-47|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://www.enterprisemission.com/earth.html "Earth Rising over the Moon"] ("For Art Bell Show 8/20/97.") From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-data-48">↑ <sup>[[#cite_ref-data_48-0|45,0]]</sup> <sup>[[#cite_ref-data_48-1|45,1]]</sup> <span class="reference-text">Hoagland, Richard C., and Bara, Michael, [http://www.enterprisemission.com/datashead.htm "Data's Head"]. From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  36. ''Dark Mission'', 2009, pp. 246–248.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-50">[[#cite_ref-50|↑]] <span class="reference-text"><nowiki>''Ibid''., pp. 68–70, 242–243.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-51">[[#cite_ref-51|↑]] <span class="reference-text">Moskowitz, Clara, [http://www.space.com/7335-water-moon-suddenly-attractive-destination.html "Water Makes Moon Suddenly a More Attractive Destination"]. SPACE.com, 25 September 2009.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-52">[[#cite_ref-52|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://www.coasttocoastam.com/show/2009/09/24 "Water on the Moon"]. ''Coast to Coast AM''. 24 September 2009.
  37. "Lunar Impact Mission". ''Coast to Coast AM''. 6 October 2009.
  38. Hoagland, Richard C., NASA's "Smoking Gun: Part II"] (2009). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-55">[[#cite_ref-55|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://www.coasttocoastam.com/show/2012/01/03 News segment guest: Richard C. Hoagland]. <nowiki>''Coast to Coast AM''. 3 January 2012. Video: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7-0FL4yGvqM "Coast 2 Coast AM: Alternative Health Treatments ~ Jan 3 2012". YouTube. Uploaded by user bugsy5656 on 28 July 2012. See time index 0:05:14 - 0:09:14.
  39. 53,0 53,1 "Liberty Bell 7". From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website. See Wikipedia article on the raising of Gus Grissom's ''[[Gus Grissom#Liberty Bell 7|Liberty Bell 7]]'' capsule.
  40. 54,0 54,1 "CSICOP Turns its Eye on Hoagland—And Gets it Blackened in The Attempt". From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-58">[[#cite_ref-58|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://www.enterprisemission.com/ody.htm "Will Mars Odyssey Finally Let The 'Cat Out of The Bag?'"]. From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  41. 56,0 56,1 "JFK & Comet Holmes". ''Coast to Coast AM''. 23 November 2007.
  42. The offer was made during a speech to the United Nations General Assembly, 20 September 1963.
  43. "Table of 'Coincidence': A Guide to the Improbable at NASA and in History"]. From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-62">[[#cite_ref-62|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://www.enterprisemission.com/dore.htm "A Hoax is a Hoax, of Course, of Course ... Unless its a Hoax of a Different Color"]. From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-63">[[#cite_ref-63|↑]] <span class="reference-text">Hoagland, Richard C., [http://web.archive.org-main.us/web/20090722071856/http://www.enterprisemission.com/weblog/2005/09/hyperdimensional-katrina-new-evidence.html "'Hyperdimensional Katrina': New Evidence"]{{Archive link|date=November 2012}}. ''Captain's Blog'', 5 September 2005. From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website. [http://web.archive.org/web/20050930203018/http://www.enterprisemission.com/weblog/2005/09/hyperdimensional-katrina-new-evidence.html Archived from the original on 30 September 2005.
  44. ''Dark Mission'', 2009, pp. 62–63, 271–289, Figs. 5-10, 5-11, 5-12, 5-13.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-65">[[#cite_ref-65|↑]] <span class="reference-text">''Hoagland's Mars. Vol. II, The U.N. Briefing, The Terrestrial Connection''. Produced by Richard C. Hoagland. Video concerns Hoagland's briefing to [[United Nations]] staff, 28 February 1992.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-Capt5-10-66">↑ <sup>[[#cite_ref-Capt5-10_66-0|63,0]]</sup> <sup>[[#cite_ref-Capt5-10_66-1|63,1]]</sup> <span class="reference-text">''Dark Mission'', 2009, caption to Fig. 5-10.
  45. ''Ibid''., p. 286.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-68">[[#cite_ref-68|↑]] <span class="reference-text">Hoagland, Richard C., [http://www.enterprisemission.com/Norway-Message.htm A <nowiki>'Nobel Torsion Message' Over Norway?: Part I] (2009). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-69">[[#cite_ref-69|↑]] <span class="reference-text">Hoagland, Richard C., [http://www.enterprisemission.com/Norway-Message2.htm A "Nobel Torsion Message" Over Norway?: Part II] (2009). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-NTM3-70">↑ <sup>[[#cite_ref-NTM3_70-0|67,0]]</sup> <sup>[[#cite_ref-NTM3_70-1|67,1]]</sup> <span class="reference-text">Hoagland, Richard C., [http://www.enterprisemission.com/Norway-Message3.htm A "Nobel Torsion Message" Over Norway?: Part III] (2010). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  46. 68,0 68,1 "Earth Changes & Space Revelations". ''Coast to Coast AM''. 2 February 2010. Video: "Earth Changes & Space Revelations". YouTube. Uploaded by user LatestConspiracyNews on 11 September 2012. See time index 1:18:03 - 2:33:23.
  47. "Elenin: A Project Camelot Roundtable Video Conference." 24 June 2011.
  48. Hoagland, Richard C., "The REAL Story of Elenin ... NASA's Astonishing Visit to Vesta ... and the Secret Space Program"]. ''3rd Annual Leeds Exopolitics Expo'', 6 August 2011. From the [http://www.exopoliticsgb.com/ Exopolitics Great Britain website.
  49. Defunct Project Camelot's [http://web.archive.org/web/20110707195235/http://www.awakeandaware2011.com/ ''Awake & Aware 2011''] conference website. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Hoagland spoke on 24 September 2011.
  50. "Space News". ''Coast to Coast AM''. 20 July 2011.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-76">[[#cite_ref-76|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://www.exopoliticsgb.com/content/richard-hoagland-coast-coast-am-and-real-story-elenin "Richard Hoagland on Coast to Coast AM and The REAL Story of Elenin"]. 24 July 2011. From the [http://www.exopoliticsgb.com/ Exopolitics Great Britain] website. Page includes two excerpts from the 20 July 2011 ''Coast to Coast AM'' program in the MP3 format. See "Coast To Coast AM - Jul 20 2011 - Hour 4.mp3," time index 14:18 - 16:34.
  51. Hoagland's composite image depicting Elenin's "tetrahedral shield."
  52. Hoagland, Richard C., Related Articles: "Enterprise Images of Elenin". ''Coast to Coast AM''. 29 August 2011.
  53. Elenin, Leonid, "Comet Elenin – the final prospect". SpaceOrbs.org. 3 September 2011.
  54. "IAUC 9189: C/2010 X1; P/2010 V1". IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. 17 December 2010.
  55. "Comet Elenin Update". ''Coast to Coast AM''. 16 October 2011. Video: "Coast To Coast AM - 2011-10-16 - Spirit Communications (Full Show)". YouTube. Uploaded by PIGAMOUS on 29 June 2012. See time index 0:06:00 - 0:40:24.
  56. News segment guest: Richard C. Hoagland. ''Coast to Coast AM''. 21 October 2011. Video: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VcY7JNAzCSk "Coast To Coast AM - 2011-10-21 - Creature Sighting Updates (Full Show)"]. YouTube. Uploaded by user PIGAMOUS on 30 June 2012. See time index 0:06:38 - 0:08:01.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-83">[[#cite_ref-83|↑]] <span class="reference-text">Warner, B. D., et al., [http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/acm2012/pdf/6013.pdf "CCD Photometric Observations of 2005 YU55 During the 2011 November Flyby"]. Lunar and Planetary Institute. Meeting: "Asteroids, Comets, Meteors (ACM) 2012," 16–20 May 2012, Niigata, Japan.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-84">[[#cite_ref-84|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/asteroids/news/yu55-20111107.html "NASA Captures New Images of Large Asteroid Passing Earth"]. NASA/JPL. Last update 17 November 2011.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-85">[[#cite_ref-85|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://i.space.com/images/i/13204/original/asteroid-2005-yu55-nasa-radar-image.jpg?1320710016 NASA's 7 November 2011 Goldstone radar image of asteroid 2005 YU<sub>55</sub>.]</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-86">[[#cite_ref-86|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/2005YU55/2005YU55_planning.html "2005 YU55 Goldstone Radar Observations Planning"]. NASA/JPL.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-88">[[#cite_ref-88|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qyLm6MZf4Cc "Collision Course -Francis Walsh & Special Guest Richard Hoagland with YU55 News (11-4-2011) Pt.1"]. <nowiki>''Collision Course''. 4 November 2011. YouTube. Uploaded by user DrakenI78 on 5 November 2011. Interview continues in part 2.
  57. "Statement by the Press Secretary on the 2011 APEC Leaders Meeting in Honolulu". The White House. 3 June 2010.
  58. "Remarks by President Obama and President Medvedev of Russia After Bilateral Meeting". The White House. 12 November 2011.
  59. News segment guest: Richard C. Hoagland. ''Coast to Coast AM''. 7 November 2011. Video: "Coast To Coast AM - 2011-11-07 - Preserving Freedom (Full Show)". YouTube. Uploaded by user PIGAMOUS on 4 July 2012. See time index 0:06:17 - 0:09:29.
  60. [http://www.coasttocoastam.com/show/2012/04/02 "Mars, Ancient Life, & 'John Carter'"]. ''Coast to Coast AM''. 2 April 2012. Video: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W5_dDRXAW34 "Richard C Hoagland. Mars, Ancient Life, & 'John Carter'. C2C-AM 04/02/2012"]. YouTube. Uploaded by user sirianfreeman5 on 24 May 2012. See time index 1:28:01 - 1:28:44.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-Posner-95">[[#cite_ref-Posner_95-0|↑]] <span class="reference-text">Posner, Gary P., [http://www.gpposner.com/Hoagland.html "The Face Behind the <nowiki>'Face' on Mars: A Skeptical Look at Richard C. Hoagland"]. (1990, 2000). Article originally published in ''Skeptical Inquirer'', Vol. 24.6, November/December 2000.
  61. Posner, Gary P., "My Response to Bara/Hoagland Rebuttal".
  62. Hoagland, Richard C., "Moon with a View" (2005). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  63. [http://www.enterprisemission.com/tower2.htm "Who's The Enemy: — The 'End of Days' Begun?"] From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-99">[[#cite_ref-99|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://www.enterprisemission.com/bauval.htm "Robert Bauval Adds to The '9-11' Mystery"]. From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  64. "The Chilbolton Crop Glyphs: A Message Finally Received – In Answer to Carl Sagan?" From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-101">[[#cite_ref-101|↑]] <span class="reference-text">Hoagland, Richard C., and Wilcock, David, [http://www.enterprisemission.com/sensor.htm "NASA Will NEVER Solve the Shuttle 'ECO Sensor Problem' …Alone"] (9 December 2007, updated 10 December 2007). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  65. Hoagland, Richard C., [http://www.enterprisemission.com/Von_Braun.htm "Von Braun's 50-Year-Old Secret"] (2008). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  66. "Leprechauns & Fairies". ''Coast to Coast AM''. 16 March 2009. Video: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vR7CC9j1hUc "Leprechauns & Fairies"]. YouTube. Uploaded by user Boomdaddy02 on 10 October 2012. See time index 0:00:00 - 0:05:14.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-104">[[#cite_ref-104|↑]] <span class="reference-text">[http://www.coasttocoastam.com/show/2009/02/23 "Hoagland Analysis"]. ''Coast to Coast AM''. 23 February 2009. Video: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n1ycWnjce00 "02 23 2009 Billy Meier's Contacts & Prophecies"]Template:Dead link. YouTube. Uploaded by user Secretsocietytoday on 19 September 2012. See time index 0:09:17 - 0:40:30.
  67. "Mars Update". ''Coast to Coast AM''. 21 May 2009.
  68. "Hoagland Analysis". ''Coast to Coast AM''. 10 June 2009. Video: "C2CAM, 2012 TRILOGY, 6-10-09. COAST TO COAST AM". YouTube. Uploaded by user LOREN MARS on 6 April 2012. See time index 0:09:46 - 0:25:42.
  69. [http://www.coasttocoastam.com/show/2009/10/16 "NASA's Moon-Smashing Mission"]. ''Coast to Coast AM''. 16 October 2009.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-108">[[#cite_ref-108|↑]] <span class="reference-text">McDougall, Paul, [http://www.informationweek.com/government/leadership/space-shuttle-successor-ready-for-test-f/220700405 "Space Shuttle Successor Ready For Test Flight"]. ''InformationWeek'', 20 October 2009.
  70. "New Lifeform/Transhumanism". ''Coast to Coast AM''. 2 December 2010. Video: "12 02 2010 New Lifeform & Transhumanism"Template:Dead link. YouTube. Uploaded by user Secretsocietytoday on 18 September 2012. See time index 0:58:30 - 1:04:11.
  71. ''Enterprise Mission National Press Club NASA Briefing, October 30, 2007''. DVD. Directed by Richard C. Hoagland.
  72. ''Coast to Coast AM'' 's [http://www.coasttocoastam.com/guest/johnston-ken/5771 biography] for guest Ken Johnston.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-112">[[#cite_ref-112|↑]] <span class="reference-text">''Dark Mission'', 2009, p. 215.</span> </li> <li id="cite_note-113">[[#cite_ref-113|↑]] <span class="reference-text"><nowiki>''Ibid''., "The Ken Johnston Collection," pp. 214–234.
  73. "Is there Proof of Life on Mars?" Conscious Media Network. Archived from the original on 10 February 2010.
  74. "Antigravity, Von Braun, & Nazi Secrets". ''Coast to Coast AM''. 21 August 2008.
  75. Hoagland, Richard C., and Wilcock, David, [http://www.enterprisemission.com/_articles/05-14-2004/Interplanetary_1.htm "Interplanetary 'Day After Tomorrow?': Part 1"]. (2004). From ''The Enterprise Mission'' website.
  76. "The D&M Pyramid on Mars and Richard Hoagland's Theories About Cydonia".
  77. Malin, Michael C., "Observations of the 'Face on Mars' and similar features by the Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter Camera". (2005). Malin Space Science Systems, Inc.
  78. Winners of the Ig Nobel Prize.
  79. Errore nella funzione Cite: Marcatore <ref> non valido; non è stato indicato alcun testo per il marcatore NAB2

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